REZUMAT NR. 1 AN 2008

1. Drept privat

CARACTERUL DEVOLUTIV AL RECURSULUI REGLEMENTAT DE ART. 3041 C. PROC. CIV.

Prof. univ. dr. Ioan LEŞ
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bãrnuţiu”
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga” din Sibiu

Mots-clés: article 3041 C. proc. civ., recours, qualification, théorie dévolutive, analyse, projet du Code de procédure civile, solutions

Le caractère dévolutif du recours réglementé par l’article 3041 C. proc. civ.
Résumé

Dans la doctrine se sont manifestées deux tendances au regard de la qualification du recours reglementé par l’art. 3041 C. proc. civ.: comme un recours dévolutif ou nondévolutif. L’auteur a été l’un des précurseurs de la théorie dévolutive du recours. Le renouvellement de ce point de vue a été occasioné récemment par certains auteurs pour étayer la nondévolution du recours prévue par l’article. 3041 C. proc. civ.
De l’avis d’auteur, la thèse contraire se fonde sur une fausse prémice, respectivement celle du mouvement essentiel du problème analysé sur un terrain qui envisage d’une manière stricte les preuves. Le caractère dévolutif du recours analysé est le résultat de son caractéristique principale, qui permet la possibilité d’une enquête de la cause, sous l’angle critique de sa fermeté et legalité et non seulement dans la lumière des raisons prévues par l’article 304 C. proc. civ.
À la fin de l’étude, l’auteur a fait quelques considérations sur les solutions prévues dans le projet du Code de procédure civile. Il critique la proposition d’introduire dans notre législation la catégorie des jugements rendus en premier et dernier ressort.

În literatura de specialitate nu existã un consens cu privire la caracterul devolutiv al recursului reglementat de art. 3041 C. proc. civ. Faptul se datoreazã şi caracterului relativ lapidar al textului comentat. Potrivit acestei norme procedurale: „Recursul declarat împotriva unei hotãrâri care, potrivit legii, nu poate fi atacatã cu apel, nu este limitat la motivele de casare prevãzute în art. 304, instanţa putând sã examineze cauza sub toate aspectele”.

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ASPECTE JURIDICE ALE PRELEVÃRII DE ORGANE, ŢESUTURI ŞI CELULE UMANE ÎN VEDEREA TRANSPLANTULUI

Prof. univ. dr. Eugen CHELARU
Facultatea de Ştiinţe Economice,
Juridice şi Administrative
Universitatea din Piteşti

Mots-clés: personne physique, corps humain, protection juridique, transplants d’organes, des tissus et de cellules humaines, conditions, donneur vivant, donneur décedé, sanctions

Des aspects juridiques concernant le prélèvement d’organes, des tissus et des cellules humaines pour le transplant
Résumé

L’existence biologique de l’homme et l’étude de ses droits sur son propre corps sont entrés relativement récemment dans la sphère d’intérêt du droit civil.
L’intérêt a été stimulé par l’évolution de la législation en matière d’avortement mais, surtout, par les extraordinaires progrès réalisés par la biologie et la médicine, notamment en ce qui concerne la possibilité de réalisation de transplants d’organes, des tissus et de cellules humaines.
Ainsi sont nées des questions auxquelles le droit civil a du donner une réponse: quel est le moment duquel la vie de l’homme doit être protégée – celui de la conception ou de la naissance; peut-on faire une dissociation entre la personne et son corps et, si la réponse est affirmative, quels sont les droits que la personne a sur son propre corps?
Le sujet de notre article est l’analyse des aspects juridiques du prélèvement d’organes, de tissus et de cellules humaines pour le transplant, tels qu’ils sont réglementés par la récente loi qui réglemente la matière.
Dans l’analyse de la problématique spécifique nous sommes parti de la considération du corps humain comme une partie de la personne, d’où dérive aussi le principe de son inviolabilité. Par conséquent, le droit de consentir au prélèvement d’organes, de tissus et de cellules humaines ne peut être considéré comme une manifestation du droit de disposition, composante du droit de propriété que la personne a sur son propre corps, mais comme l’un des droits de la personnalité.
Le corps humain ne peut pas faire ainsi l’objet des actes juridiques patrimoniales, ni même quand il s’agit de ses composants. Pour cette raison le consentement à la donation d’organes, de tissus et de cellules humaines doit être animé exclusivement par des buts altruistes, n’importe si le sujet duquel on fait le prélèvement est vivant ou défunt.
La nature juridique de l’acte par lequel on exprime le consentement au prélèvement, la forme et les conditions que ceci doit remplir, la détermination de la personne qui peut l’exprimer ont constitué aussi l’objet de nos préoccupations.

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EXPUNEREA DREPTURILOR PERSONALITÃŢII

Prof. univ. dr. Cãlina JUGASTRU
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bãrnuţiu”
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga” din Sibiu

Mots-clés: personne phisique, droits de la personnalité, divulgation, principe du consentement, exceptions, informations d’actualité, droit à l’information, liberté d’expression, limites

L’exposition des droits de la personnalité
Résumé

Les droits de la personnalité sont des prérogatives qui appartiennent à toute personne phisique et qu’on peut qualifier comme droits subjectifs. Le droit roumain ne règlemente pas, in terminis, la notion des droits de la personnalité, ni le principe du consentement de la personne pour toute divulgation ou exposition du droit à l’image, droit à la vie privée, droit au nom, au domicile, droit à l’honneur et à la reputation ou à la dignité. La doctrine et la jurisprudence ont dégagé ce principe et ses exceptions (par exemple, l’accord de la personne est présumé pour la participation aux événements publics, pour les professions et aussi pour les activités publics).
Les droits de la personnalité peuvent entrer en conflit avec la liberté d’expression et le droit à l’information. La liberté d’expression est consacrée dans la loi fondamentale et le droit de savoir appartient au public. Leurs exercice doit protéger les droits intimement attachés au titulaire. Même si l’actualité est le terrain privilégié du marché des informations, on ne peut pas diffuser n’importe quelle information. Les sujets d’actualité peuvent impliqué des personnalités ou des citoyens inconnus au grand public – certainement, la liberté d’expression et le droit à l’information connaissent des limites neccessaires.

Preliminarii
Demersurile fixãrii noţiunii drepturile personalitãţii au plecat de la definirea drepturilor subiective şi delimitarea acestora din urmã de libertãţile civile1. O astfel de analizã a condus la concluzia cã, departe de a fi incompatibile cu drepturile subiective, drepturile personalitãţii sunt o aplicaţie particularã a acestora. Într-adevãr, drepturile subiective

1 În acest sens, P. Kayser, Les droits de la personnalité. Aspects théoriques et pratiques, în Revue trimestrielle de droit civil, vol.XXIX/1971, p.448-454; Gh. Mihai, G. Popescu, Introducere în teoria drepturilor personalitãţii, Editura Academiei Române, Bucureşti, 1992, p.55-64.

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CÂTEVA CONSIDERAŢII ASUPRA POSESIEI ÎN DREPTUL COMPARAT

Lector univ. dr. Cornelia MUNTEANU
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bãrnuţiu”
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga” din Sibiu

Mots-clés: posession, notion, fonctions, possession et propriété, droit comparé – allemand, suisse et anglais.

Quelques considérations sur la possession en droit comparé
Résumé

La possession est au coeur du droit des biens; elle est une „béatitude” qui merite d’etre protégée en tant que fait juridique. Pourquoi le possesseur est-il protégé meme contre le propriétaire? Savigny: parce qu’il faut protéger la paix publique, parce que la justice privée est prohibée. Ihering: parce que la possession est la visibilité, l’exteriorité du droit de propriété. Elle est defendu comme une position avancée de ce droit; protéger la possession c’est, dans les plupart des cas et peu importent les autres, protéger la propriété, à laquelle la possession confère son utilité et qu’elle permet de prouver; a défaut, la preuve du droit de propriété serait probatio diabolica.
Antinomique l’un de l’autre, chaqune de deux théories a influencé les systèmes juridiques. Ainsi, le Code civil français, italien, roumain ont consacré la conception subjective de Savigny, en temps que le Code civil allemand et suisse ont adopté la théorie objective du Ihering.
En droit anglais, la distinction tranchée du droit roumain entre la possession – maîtrise de fait et propriété – titre ne se retrouve pas. Possession et propriété ne sont pas séparées comme si elles appartenaient à deux mondes différents, l’une relevant du domaine des faits, l’autre de la sphère du droit.
Pour mieux comprendre la possession, l’auteur propose une analyse de cette institution en droit comparé: allemand, suisse et anglais.

1. Consideraţii generale
Dreptul subiectiv este o putere sau o prerogativã garantatã de stat pentru cã ea este conformã dreptului obiectiv. Existã însã puteri care nu sunt drepturi subiective: acestea sunt puterile sau prerogativele de fapt1. Printre aceste puteri...

1 Etimologie: „putere” – infinitiv luat substantiv din lat. popular potere în loc de posse. În general el desemneazã: a) stãpânire de fapt, forţã, putere; b) prerogativã juridicã (putere de drept, întemeiatã în drept). În dreptul privat are mai multe sensuri. Într-un prim sens înseamnã putere de fapt, stãpânire efectivã (G. Cornu, Association Henri Capitant,

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SCURTÃ INCURSIUNE ISTORICÃ CU PRIVIRE LA EVOLUŢIA NOŢIUNII DE DREPT DE PROPRIETATE ŞI A LIMITELOR ACESTUIA, ÎN DREPTUL FRANCEZ ŞI CEL ENGLEZ

Asist. univ. drd. Laura-Maria CRÃCIUNEAN
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bãrnuţiu”
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga” din Sibiu

Mots-clés: droit de propriété, propriété, droit français, droit anglais, histoire, limites, pouvoirs du propriétaire

Brève incursion historique concernant l’évolution de la notion de droit de propriété et de ses restrictions, dans le droit français et dans le droit anglais
Résumé

Cet article a comme objectif la présentation d’une manière comparative – dans le droit français et dans le droit anglais des biens – l’évolution et le destin d’un droit fondamental de l’homme, celui de la propriété privée, avec de nombreuses questions qui se posent à son sujet: quelles sont les origines du droit de propriété, quel est le rôle du droit romain dans sa formation, comment le droit de propriété s’est-il adapté aux nécessités du monde féodal, quelle fut l’ampleur des bouleversements apportés, en France, par la Révolution de 1789, comment le Code civil protège-t-il le droit de propriété, qu’est ce qu’il est devenu le droit de propriété au XXe siècle, quelles sont les différences terminologiques et matérielles entre le droit de propriété en France et en Angleterre? Nous nous somme aussi concentré sur les aspects particuliers du droit anglais des biens parce qu’il n’existe pas une distinction trés bien conturée entre le droit réel et le droit de créance; c’est, d’ailleurs, la preuve d’une grande souplesse qui, en particulièr dans la matière des biens, assure l’adaptation aux éxigences du monde moderne, commercial et financier. On parle ici des concepts qui ont permis et qui permettent encore une multiplication des droits et des pouvoirs sur les choses, d’une manière simultané et succesive.
Telles sont les questions auxquelles cet article essaie de répondre.

1. Aspecte cu privire la evoluţia noţiunilor de drept de proprietate şi limite ale acestuia în dreptul francez Concepţia clasicã asupra dreptului de proprietate în dreptul francez este cea instituitã de Declaraţia francezã a drepturilor omului şi cetãţeanului (26 august 1789), în conformitate cu care dreptul de proprietate este un drept natural şi imprescriptibil ...

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RECURSURILE SPECIALE ÎN PROCEDURA CIVILÃ ROMÂNÃ.
I. RECURSURILE SPECIALE ÎN PERIOADA ANTEBELICÃ*

Lector univ. dr. Sebastian SPINEI
Facultatea de Drept Simion Bãrnuţiu
Universitatea Lucian Blaga Sibiu

Mots-clés : procédure civile roumaine, voies de recours, pourvoi en cassation, recours spéciaux, pourvoi dans l’intérêt de la loi, recours pour excès de pouvoir.

Les recours spéciaux dans la procédure civile roumaine.
I. Les recours spéciaux avant la Seconde Guerre mondiale
Résumé

Le pourvoi en cassation est l’archétype de la voie de recours destinée à éliminer les violations de la loi, à supprimer les jugements irréguliers et à assurer l’unité de la jurisprudence.
A partir de ce modèle initial, se sont détachées des voies de recours avec des traits similaires à celles du pourvoi, mais avec des physionomies différentes en raison de quelques caractéristiques particulières.
Dans le système classique de la Cassation, le pourvoi ou le recours ne fonctionnaient pas d’une manière isolée, mais dans un assemblage, avec d’autres recours spéciaux - le pourvoi dans l’intérêt de la loi et le recours pour excès de pouvoir.
Cette étude examine la situation des recours spéciaux dans la procédure civile roumaine avant la Seconde Guerre mondiale

Preliminarii
Recursul în casaţie este arhetipul cãii de atac destinate a înlãtura încãlcarea legii, a desfiinţa hotãrârile nelegale şi a asigura unitatea de jurisprudenţã. Din acest model iniţial, s-au desprins cãi de atac ale cãror trãsãturi se suprapun cu o parte din cele ale recursului, rezultând remedii procesuale cu fizionomii diferite datoritã unor caracteristici punctuale, derogatorii.

* Prezentul studiu reprezintã prima parte a unei analize dedicate recursurilor speciale în procedura civilã românã, realizatã dintr-o perspectivã istoricã, urmãrindu-se o prezentare a sistematicã a reglementãrilor în materie în trei epoci distincte. În urmãtoarele numere ale revistei analiza va continua cu prezentarea recursurilor speciale în perioada modernã şi în cea contemporanã.

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PROMISIUNEA DE PORTE-FORT ŞI ARTICOLUL 973 DIN CODUL CIVIL ROMÂN (II)

Lector univ. drd. Adrian CIRCA
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bãrnuţiu”
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga” din Sibiu

Mots-clés: principe de la relativité des effets du contrat civil, exceptions apparentes, promission pour autrui, effets, comparaison avec autres institutions

La promission de porte-fort et l’article 973 du Code civil roumain (II)
Résumé

La promission pour autrui se présente comme une opération juridique complexe. Du point de vue intelectuel on peut le décomposée dans deux actes juridiques – la convention de porte-fort et l’acte juridique réalisé suite à la promission. L’acte juridique eventuel peut être une convention – dans la situation du contrat entre le tiers et le créditeur – ou un acte juridique unilatéral – dans la situation de la ratification du contrat par le tiers.

Efectele promisiunii pentru altul
Convenţia prin care debitorul promite fapta altuia trebuie interpretatã în sensul în care poate produce un efect, deci, în sensul unei promisiuni de porte-fort. Altfel, dacã o persoanã promite fapta altuia, angajamentul nu valoreazã nimic. Eficacitatea acestui procedeu nu poate fi analizatã doar în aspectul ei static de la momentul încheierii convenţiei de porte-fort, ci se impune şi observarea aspectului dinamic, când urmeazã sã se realizeze actul dorit1.
Astfel, promisiunea pentru altul se poate analiza în prima etapã prin prisma efectelor ce sunt produse de actul încheiat între promitent şi creditor, iar în a doua etapã se poate distinge dupã cum s-a angajat terţul şi efectele angajamentului în raport cu convenţia propriu-zisã, sau nu s-a angajat terţul.
Efectele promisiunii de porte-fort privesc relaţiile între creditor şi promitent, între promitent şi terţ şi între terţ şi creditor.
Funcţie de obiectul prestaţiei asumate de promitent, terţul poate încheia sau ratifica un act. Indiferent de modalitatea prin care terţul se obligã, fie cã încheie ...

1 L. Pop, Teoria generalã a obligaţiilor, Editura Lumina Lex, Bucureşti, 1998, p. 110.

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ASPECTE PRIVIND DREPTUL LA VIAŢÃ PRIVATÃ AL PERSOANEI FIZICE

Lector univ. drd. Dana-Elena MORAR
Facultatea de Drept
Universitatea „Bogdan-Vodã“, Cluj-Napoca

Keywords: privacy, right to private life, public figures, public life, press, protecting privacy, freedom of press, personality rights, European Convention of Human Rights

Some aspects regarding the concept of “privacy” of the natural person
Summary

This article proposes a brief analysis of the concept of “privacy” of the natural person.
The concept of “privacy” has evolved in time, along with the evolution of the “personality rights”, among which, privacy has played an important role. Thus, “privacy” appears as a complex notion, which absorbs many elements, such as the ones regarding the identity and the state of health of the person, his|hers domicile, aspects concerning his|hers sexuality etc.
In order to provide an efficient protection of the privacy of the natural person, one has to draw a line between it and the public life, which is somewhat difficult, in the case of “public figures”.
The most frequent ways of breaching their privacy are being alledged by these public figures. They claim unjustified interferences of the press in their intimacy, the jurisprudence in this area being very rich. From this point of view, privacy collides with the freedom of the press, which is also guaranteed by the European Convention of Human Rights.
In order to regulate this conflict, the doctrine has come up with some criteria, which remove the illicit nature of the press medling in the private lives of the plaintiffs.
The evolution of the human society influences, the evolution of “privacy”, which is in fact a flexible and everchanging concept.

Scopul acestei lucrãri constã într-o analizã succintã a conceptului de „viaţã privatã”, privit mai ales prin prisma jurisprudenţei Curţii Europene a Drepturilor Omului şi a instanţelor franceze şi a celor mai frecvente modalitãţi de încãlcare a dreptului persoanei la viaţa sa privatã.
Viaţa privatã a persoanei, atribut al personalitãţii acesteia, „coexistã” cu viaţa publicã a acesteia şi este ocrotitã atât de Constituţia României (art. 26), cât şi de ...

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REFLECŢII ÎN LEGÃTURÃ CU NOŢIUNEA DE VIOLENŢÃ

Lector univ. drd. Ada HURBEAN
Facultatea de Drept şi Ştiinţe Sociale,
Universitatea „1 Decembrie 1918” – Alba-Iulia

Keywords: legal act, defect in consent, duress, the absence of cause – defect in consent

Thoughts on the notion of duress
Summary

This article analyzes the notion of duress in the context of juridical individualism and of a will’s autonomy principle. Also, the concept of duress it’s seen in a wide meaning, including the threat and the acts of violence, both capable to create the state of fear in the mind of the duress victim. It is presented, on the same time, the differences which appear between the duress and the violence that destroy the person’s will, but, also, the difference between the intervention of duress and the absence of the consideration in a contract. The last aspect has a practical importance, in actual juridical realities.

Sancţionarea juridicã a violenţei, în genere, şi a violenţei fizice, în special, a apãrut ca o reacţie socialã. Nevoia societãţii de a-şi proteja membrii împotriva oricãror forme de constrângere şi a consecinţelor acestei constrângeri a îmbrãcat forme diferite, plecând din planul dreptului civil şi ajungând în cel al dreptului penal. Sub aspectul dreptului privat, civil, în speţã, acest concept a evoluat de la delict civil, reprimatã pentru cã era sursa dezordinii sociale1, la viciu de consimţãmânt. În fapt, aceastã evoluţie trebuie privitã pe mai multe planuri sau direcţii, deoarece, odatã cu conturarea celor douã mari ramuri de drept, dreptul public şi cel privat, violenţa a ajuns sã fie reglementatã diferit.
Trebuie sã avem în vedere faptul cã dreptul penal modern este de facturã relativ recentã în comparaţie cu dreptul civil ce îşi are rãdãcinile în dreptul roman, aşa încât, violenţa, ca delict, o vedem astãzi ca o reglementare de graniţã între dreptul public şi dreptul privat. Metus rãmâne, în epoca romanã, un delict, chiar dacã sancţiunea sa este una pecuniarã, alãturi de tâlhãrie (rapina), dolus, fraus creditorum.
Dupã unii autori2 teama se configureazã ca viciu de consimţãmânt în epoca lui Justinian. Dacã avem în vedere motivul anulãrii actelor juridice civile încheiate sub ...

1 J. Ghestin, Traité de droit civil. La formation du contrat, Librairie Générale de Droit et de Jurisprudence, Paris, 1993, p. 565.
2 A. E. Giffard, R. Villers, Droit romain et ancien droit français, Paris, 1976, II, p. 264.

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SCURTE CONSIDERAŢII PRIVIND DREPTUL LA MOŞTENIRE AL SOŢULUI SUPRAVIEŢUITOR ÎN
ROMÂNIA ŞI ÎN UNELE STATE MEMBRE ALE UNIUNII EUROPENE

Drd. Adrian ZAHARIA
Notar Public, Camera Notarilor Publici din Galaţi
Anca BORDEIANU
Studentã, Facultatea de Drept a Universitãţii „Danubius” din Galaţi
Facultatea de Psihologie a Universitãţii „Spiru Haret” din Bucureşti

Keywords: right to inherit, surviving spouse, legal reserve of the surviving spouse, Romanian law, comparative law

Brief Remarks on the Inheritance rights of the Surviving Spouse in Romania and several EU Member States
Summary

The institution of the right to inherit of the surviving spouse underwent, in the European space, a slow evolution determined not only by communities’ strategies on wealth distribution but also by the intervention of the state which limited the right of the individual to freely dispose of his goods mortis causa. Though in certain states, throughout history, common or even written law, recognized certain rights to the surviving spouse, it is only in the past century that the European states have modified the law so as to consolidate the right of the survivig spouse to inherit. Compared to the legislation of other European states, when promulgated, the Law no. 319/1944 on the right to inherit of the surviving spouse, had innovative, modern provisions that were concordant with the society’s requirements. Ever since, some European states have modified and modernized their legislation making way, yet again, for a new approach of the matter in our country too.

1. Precizãri prealabile
De-a lungul timpului statul a jucat un rol determinant în libertatea individului de a dispune de bunurile sale mortis causa limitând-o. Atât în sistemul de drept anglo-saxon cât şi în cel roman, libertatea testamentarã a fost restrânsã1. Soţul ...

1 D. Mouralis, Le sort du conjoint survivant en France et en Ontario. Un exercice de droit comparé, Presses Universitaires D’Aix-Marseille, 2003, p. 100.

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NOUA COMPETENŢÃ INTERNAŢIONALÃ A INSTANŢELOR ROMÂNE ÎN MATERIA DIVORŢULUI ŞI A ANULÃRII CÃSÃTORIEI ÎN RELAŢIILE ROMÂNIEI CU REPUBLICA POLONĂ

Lector univ. dr. Nadia Cerasela DARIESCU
Facultatea de Drept,
Universitatea „Petre Andrei”, Iaşi
Lector univ. dr. COSMIN DARIESCU
Facultatea de Drept,
Universitatea „Al.I. Cuza”, Iaşi

Keywords: spouses, divorce and marriage annulment, legal jursidiction, international, The 15th of May Treaty between Romania and Poland regarding the juridical assistence and the legal relationships in civil matters, situation after January the 1th, 2007.

The new international jurisdiction of Romania Courts in the field of divorce and of marriage annulement, in Romania’s relationship with the Republic of Poland
Summary

After the accession of Romania to the European Union on January 1, 2007, the Romanian judges have to use a more intricate method for solving cases of divorce and marriage annulment between spouses that are Polish citizens with habitual residence in Romania, or Romanian citizens with habitual residence in the Republic of Poland or between a Polish citizen and a Romanian one. They have to establish their jurisdiction on the provisions of Article 3 and Article 4 of Council Regulation (EC) No 2201/2003 of 27 November 2003 concerning jurisdiction and the recognition and enforcement of judgments in matrimonial matters and the matters of parental responsibility, repealing Regulation (EC) No 1347/2000. These new legal provisions repealed the international jurisdiction rules provided by Articles 31 and 32 of the Treaty between Romania and the Republic of Poland on Legal Assistance and Legal Relations in Civil and Criminal Matters (Bucharest, May 15, 1999), ratified by Romania by Government Ordinance no. 65 of August 30, 1999, ordinance approved in its turn by Act no. 33 of April 17, 2000. The provisions of Articles 3 and 4 of the regulation will suffer an adaptation to the specific requirements provided in Article 30 of the Treaty (where the jurisdiction rules of Articles 31 and 32 refers to). In order to find out the substantial law that will govern the divorce or the claim for the marriage annulment, the Romanian judges will use the choice-of-law rules provided by Articles 31 (which refers in that respect to the first two paragraphs of Article 30) and Article 32 of the above mentioned treaty (article which refers in that respect to Article 29). In the case of divorce claims, it is possible to appear a discrepancy between the solutions of the jurisdiction conflicts, that use the “habitual residence” concept (according to Article 3 of Council Regulation (EC) No 2201/2003), and the solutions of the conflicts of laws, that use, as a connecting factor, the Romanian concept of “domicile” (among the “common nationality” and “the lex fori”) . This discrepancy should be solved by assimilating the “habitual residence” concept with the Romanian “domicile” concept (which should be quite easy, because the habitual residence is, in fact, a Romanian domicile proved only by facts). By doing so, the Romanian judges would obtain identical jurisdictional solutions with those provided in Articles 31 and 32 of the treaty.
However, the introduction of uniform choice-of-law rules regarding divorce and marriage annulment, by an E.U. regulation should lighten the Romanian judges’ burden in such cases.

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INTERPUNEREA DE PERSOANE – FORMÃ A SIMULAŢIEI

Cristina ACHIM, Iulia BOIDACHI, Ioana POIANÃ
Studente, Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bãrnuţiu”
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga” din Sibiu

Keywords: simulation, history, notion, legal conditions, forms, interposition of persons, analysis, practical issues, interposition of persons – mandate

Interposition of persons – a form of simulation
Summary

The aim of the present paper is to treat one of the most controversial exceptions of the opposability towards third parties principle - simulation with one of its forms: interposition of persons. The paper is structured in four main parts, each having the goal to point out in an objective and diversified manner the features that form the content and the opinions expressed in time.
The first part tries to present the historical evolution that the legal institution – simulation – had since the roman law. Next, under a general glance the simulation is analysed. During the short study upon simulation the forms, conditions and its present rules are presented, as well as the opinions of different authors.
The middle part of the present study focuses upon the interposition of persons which is in fact the purpose of this paper. The interposition of persons is largely exposed from general to particular. Being the central point of this article, the interposition of persons was minutely debated pointing out the dominant doctrinal opinion in the simulation field.
Finally, also on the basis of doctrine, it was outlined a comparison between the simulation form – interposition of persons and the mandate with and without representation. Also, all along the article there were inserted a few cases of judicial practice that best outline the main idea that governs the entire paper.

1. Consideraţii istorice
Simulaţia în dreptul roman

Pentru a putea studia cât mai în amãnunt şi totodatã pentru a înţelege în definitiv ce reprezintã aceastã instituţie a dreptului civil, considerãm necesarã prezentarea ...

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DREPTUL DE PROPRIETATE INTELECTUALÃ ŞI LIBERTATEA DE EXPRIMARE ÎN EUROPA

„Lumea se îneacã în informaţii şi totuşi este însetatã de cunoaştere”

John Naisbit
Emil-George IOANI
Avocat, Baroul Bucureşti

Mots-clés: propriété intellectuelle, droit d’auteur, liberté d’expression, conflit, droit européen

Le droit de propriété intellectuelle et la liberté d’expression en Europe
Résumé

Le souci pour la prolifération constante des droits d’auteur, ou, par contre, pour le déclin du domaine public n’est plus limité aux Etats Unis. Dans les dernières années, un nombre croissant de doctrinaires et juges européens ont exprimé leur inquiétude concernant l’augmentation constante des droits de propriété intellectuelle, droits d’auteur et droits connexes. Est-il possible que la vague de droits de propriété immobilière soit arrêtée? Certaines décisions des tribunaux européens semblent suggérer que la liberté d’expression et d’information, assurée, inter alia, par la Convention Européenne des Droits de l’Homme, peut limiter, dans certains cas, la protection exagérée des droits de propriété intellectuelle. L’article 10 de la CEDO, longtemps ignoré tant par les doctrinaires que par les instances, peut constituer non pas un barrage, mais une balise pour les utilisateurs de bonne foi qui se noient dans une mer des droits de propriété intellectuelle.

1. Introducere
Grija pentru proliferarea constantã a drepturilor intelectuale, sau, din contrã, pentru declinul domeniului public nu mai este limitatã la SUA. În ultimii ani, un numãr crescut de doctrinari şi judecãtori europeni şi-au exprimat neliniştea în legãturã cu creşterea numãrului de drepturi de proprietate intelectualã, drepturi de autor şi drepturi conexe1.
Poate valul de drepturi de proprietate imobiliara sa fie oprit? Decizii ale instanţelor europene par sã sugereze cã libertatea de exprimare şi de informare, garantatã ...

1 H. Laddie, Copyright: Over-Strength, Over-Regulated, Over-Rated?, 1996, (www.leeds.ac.uk/cedars/documents/CIS05.htm)

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2. Drept public

50 ANS DE DROIT DE L’ESPACE

Philippe ACHILLÉAS
Directeur de l’Institut du Droit de l’Espace et des Télécommunications
Directeur du M2 Droit des activités spatiales et des communications électroniques
Université Paris-Sud 11

Keywords: outer space, freedom, non-appropriation, liability regime, space applications

50 Years of Space Law
Summary

In 1957, the launch of Sputnik gave birth to the first space law rules recognized as international customs: the freedom of outer space and the non-appropriation of outer space. Since then, UN adopted five treaties containing major legal principles including a liability regime. Furthermore, specific legal texts have been adopted to regulate space applications such as telecommunications, television and remote sensing. In order to promote developpment of futures activities in outer space, new rules need to be implemented in the field of space security, space tourism and legal regime for exploitation of celestial bodies’ resources.

Le droit de l’espace est né exactement le 4 octobre 1957 avec le lancement du premier satellite artificiel de la Terre par l’ex-URSS: Spoutnik 1. Cet exploit scientifique salué par la communauté internationale s’est traduit sur le plan juridique par la reconnaissance instantanée de deux règles coutumières: la liberté de l’espace et son corollaire, la non-appropriation de l’espace. La performance technique réalisée par les soviétiques masquait en réalité un succès militaire majeur. Moscou venait de démontrer au monde entier sa supériorité technologique et, en particulier à Washington, sa capacité de lancer une fusée suffisamment puissante pour frapper le territoire des Etats-Unis d’une arme nucléaire. Les Américains, stupéfaits par cette prouesse et conscients que leur sécurité était menacée, ont cherché à rattraper leur retard. Ils lancent leur premier satellite, Explorer, le 1er février 1958. La même ...

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DESPRE NATURA JURIDICÃ A COMUNITÃŢILOR EUROPENE ŞI A DREPTULUI COMUNITAR EUROPEAN

Conf. univ. dr. Daiana Maura VESMAŞ
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bãrnuţiu”
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga” din Sibiu

Keywords: European Communities, community law, legal nature, theories, European Court of Justice, influence

About the juridical nature of the European Communities and the community law
Summary

Comparative to the other international organizations established in Europe after the second World War, the European Communities are characterized by the transfer of constitutional powers in the fields of common interest from the member states to this international organizations. The transfer was approved by the member states by signing and ratifying the international treaties for establishment of the three communities. This transffer of constitutional powers has been defined in the treaties and in the doctrine as supranationality. In spite of the fact that there is no consensus regarding the juridical nature of the European communities or of the European community law. In the last years it seems that the point of view of the authonomists leads against the traditional conceptions. This meets actually the succes of the federalist theories regarding the future of the European Community and Union, at least up to the extension to the East. For the succes of the authonomist theories is to be thanked first of all to the European Court of Justice and to the community practice which had a very influence in this matter and succeded to overtake some very serious other dogmatic positions. Therefor the European Court of Justice appears not only as a creator of secondary community law but also as a conductor of the contemporary view regarding the international public law and public law organizations.

Odatã cu intrarea în vigoare a Tratatului de la Maastricht asupra Uniunii Europene (TUE) la 1 noiembrie 1993 referirea la Comunitatea Europeanã (CE) a devenit corectã din punct de vedere legal. Termenul de „economicã” a fost eliminat pentru a reflecta faptul cã au avut loc o serie de transformãri fundamentale de naturã a accentua aspectele cu naturã non-economice cum ar fi, spre exemplu, cetãţenia europeanã.
De asemenea, a devenit uzual ca în limbajul politico-juridic contemporan, sintagma Uniunea Europeanã sã fie folositã ca un fel de extensie a sintagmei „Comunitatea Europeanã”.
Construcţia comunitarã europeanã, politicã, juridicã şi instituţionalã, a cuprins iniţial trei comunitãţi europene: Comunitatea Europeanã a Cãrbunelui şi Oţelului ...

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RÃSPUNDEREA PENALÃ A MEMBRILOR –ÎNTRE POLITICÃ ŞI CONSTITUŢIE

Conf. univ. dr. Bianca SELEJAN-GUŢAN
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bãrnuţiu”
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga” din Sibiu

Mots-clés: responsabilité politique, responsabilité pénale, Gouvernement, Cour Constitutionnelle

La responsabilité pénale des membres du Gouvernement – entre politique et Constitution
Résumé

Le présent article met en discussion un problême extrèmement controversé dans la vie constitutionnelle et politique récente: celui de la responsabilité pénale des ministres. Si, dans le cas de la responsabilité politique, l’implication du Parlement a des très clairs fondements, les dispositions constitutionnelles qui statuent sur la responsabilité pénale des membres du Gouvernement ont reçu des différentes interprétations dans la pratique politique et juridique. La jurisprudence de la Cour constitutionnelle n’offre non plus de précision. Située au carrefour du droit et de l’influence politique, la responsabilité pénale des membres du Gouvernement a été sujet des débats et même des révisions constitutionnelles dans d’autres systèmes constitutionnels.

O problemã extrem de controversatã în viaţa constituţionalã şi politicã recentã este cea a rãspunderii penale a membrilor Guvernului. Dacã, în cazul rãspunderii politice, implicarea Parlamentului are fundamente clare, de necontestat, prevederile constituţionale care reglementeazã rãspunderea penalã a membrilor Guvernului au primit interpretãri diferite în practicã. Aflatã la limita dintre drept şi influenţa politicã, rãspunderea penalã a membrilor Guvernului a constituit obiect de dezbateri şi chiar modificãri constituţionale şi în alte sisteme contemporane. Spre exemplu, dacã în Spania sau Elveţia membrii Guvernului pot fi puşi sub acuzare doar cu aprobarea parlamentului (una din camere - Congresul deputaţilor, respectiv Adunarea federalã) şi judecaţi de o jurisdicţie specialã sau supremã, în Italia aceastã imunitate guvernamentalã a fost eliminatã prin legea constituţionalã nr. 1/1989: s-a menţinut doar autorizarea parlamentarã, eliminându-se punerea sub acuzare de cãtre parlament, iar competenţa de judecatã aparţine instanţelor ordinare, pentru a „nu se crea o categorie de «neatins»”.1

1 F. del Giudice (dir.), Diritto pubblico comparato, Edizioni giuridiche Simone, 2003, p. 143.

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CONSIDERAŢII CU PRIVIRE LA O.U.G. NR. 34/2006 PRIVIND ATRIBUIREA CONTRACTELOR DE ACHIZIŢIE PUBLICÃ, A CONTRACTELOR DE CONCESIUNE DE LUCRÃRI PUBLICE ŞI A CONTRACTELOR DE CONCESIUNE DE SERVICII1

Conf. univ. dr. Nicola IORDAN
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bãrnuţiu”
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga” din Sibiu

Mots-clés: acquisition publique, concession des travaux publics, concession des services, régime juridique, Ordonnance du Gouvernement no. 34/2006, aspects d’inconstitutionnalité

Considérations concernant O.U.G. nş 34/2006 sur l’attribution des contrats d’acquisition publique, de contrats de concessions des travaux publics et des contrats de concessions des services
Résumé

La dernière législation roumaine dans la matière des acquisitions publiques (réglementée à la base de l’O.U.G. no. 60/20012), exigeait sans doute son perfectionnement, et la nouvelle ordonnance dans ce domaine – O.U.G. no. 34/2006 – a eu, entre autres, ce but. Néanmoins, le nouvel cadre réglementaire est lacunaire et contestable des plusieurs points de vue. C’est pourquoi, nous nous avons proposes de discuter ci-après ses problèmes les plus graves.
En ce qui concerne les aspects d’inconstitutionnalité de l’O.U.G. no. 34/2006, à notre avis, cet acte normatif contient plusieurs règles discutables vis-à-vis de leur conformité avec les dispositions constitutionnelles.
En première instance, se pose la question si cette matière devrait être réglementée par la voie d’une loi ou par l’ordonnance d’urgence. En analysant les dispositions de la Constitution on relève les arguments pour soutenir l’inconstitutionnalité de l’O.U.G. no. 34/2006, qui n’a pas été émise dans une “situation extraordinaire”.
Deuxièmement, en ce qui concerne les dispositions contenues dans le Chapitre IX de l’Ordonnance, sous le titre „Solutionner des contestations”, elles confèrent une compétence exorbitante au nouveau Conseil National (organisé dans la subordination de l’Autorité Nationale de Réglementation et Monitorisation des Acquisitions Publiques), ainsi que, à notre avis, il peut être qualifié comme

1 Publicatã în M. Of. nr. 418 din 15 mai 2006, cu modificãrile şi completãrile ulterioare.
2 M. Of. nr. 241 din 11 mai 2001, aprobatã prin Legea nr. 212/2002 (M. Of. nr. 331 din 17 mai 2002), cu modificãrile şi completãrile ulterioare, abrogatã prin O.U.G. nr. 34/2006.

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COMBATEREA CORUPŢIEI – CALE DE A REDUCE ECONOMIA SUBTERANÃ

Conf. univ. dr. Nicolaie ŞUTEU
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bãrnuţiu”
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga” din Sibiu

Keywords: corruption, legislation, United Nations Commission for Crime Prevention, investigation, measures.

Fighting Corruption – a Way of Reducing the Underground Economy
Summary

The fight against this phenomena brings immediate profits. The incomes resulting from fighting corruption surpass oftenly the expenses. According to some estimations from the Occident, from the actions of the economic agents from the national geographical area, to an effort of a pound, result incomes of 23 pounds and from the transnational economic actions the incomes of a spent pound are of 250 pounds.
The United Nations Commission for Crime Prevention shows that the respective phenomena spread considerably in Central and West Europe in the last decade. Worldwide and local financial companies (INTOSAI, EUROSAI, SIGMA, European Court of Auditors, The World Bank, the working group on ASCE problems, International Fund of Accounts) included such problems in the lists of subjects discussed during seminars and congresses.
The legislation allowing to fight corruption is formally adopted and not effective. Where the civil society is stronger than the state another problem may occur, that is by the name of fighting crime political enemies are established, the government is always accused of corruption and frequent resignations come out without being offered the chance to fight this phenomenon. A special situation is that when society tolerates corruption. That is formally each member of the society blames the phenomenon. Practically, when necessary to react, they give in not trusting enough the success.

Lupta contra fenomenului corupţiei aduce profituri imediate. Veniturile de la combaterea corupţiei întrec cheltuielile de multe ori. Conform unor estimãri din Occident, la acţiunile care vizeazã agenţii economici din perimetrul geografic naţional, la un efort de o lirã, se obţin venituri de 23 de lire, iar la cele care vizeazã activitãţile transnaţionale veniturile la o lirã cheltuitã depãşesc 250 lire.1

1 I. Bogdan, Corupţia şi criminalitatea economicã, în Curier economic, 45 (347).

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SANCŢIUNILE ADMINISTRATIVE ŞI MÃSURILE CU CARACTER ADMINISTRATIV – NOŢIUNI CU
CARACTER ŞI EFECTE DISTINCTE

Asist. univ. Ana MOCANU-SUCIU
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bãrnuţiu”
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga” din Sibiu

Mots-clés: fonction publique, sanctions administratives, Statut des fonctionnaires publiques, droit roumain, droit comparé

Les sanctions administratives et les mesures administratives – notions à caractère et à effets distincts
Résumé

La sanction administrative est un très important dans le droit de la fonction publique. Mais, en certaines situations, la sanction administrative est sournoise d’une mesure qui est prise en intérêt de service justifiée par la bonne d’activité du service public. Pour garantir le droit du fonctionnaire public et pour limiter le pouvoir d’autorité publique, le statut de fonction publique fait distinction entre une mesure disciplinaire et une mesure qui est requise par l’intérêt de service.
Le deux sont fondamentalement séparées des garanties regulaméntaires légales qui sont très force dans la domaine des sanctions disciplinaires mais sont minimes dans la simple mesure administrative.

Funcţia publicã şi funcţionarul public a beneficiat în ultimii ani de o reglementare amãnunţitã a regimului juridic în vederea limitãrii puterii discreţionare a conducãtorilor autoritãţilor şi instituţiilor publice, astfel cã se poate vorbi de un adevãrat drept al funcţiei publice.
Pentru a concilia interesul public, ce constituie scopul exercitãrii funcţiei publice, cu drepturile funcţionarului public au fost instituite legal douã principii esenţiale pentru realizarea unei bune administraţii, şi anume principiul stabilitãţii în exercitarea funcţiei şi principiul subordonãrii ierarhice a funcţionarului public.
Acestea au urmãtorul conţinut1: - principiul stabilitãţii în exercitarea funcţiei înseamnã cã funcţionarii publici nu pot fi eliberaţi sau destituiţi din funcţie decât în condiţiile şi cazurile legal şi limitativ ...

1 I. Santai, Drept administrativ şi ştiinţa administraţiei, Editura Risoprint, Cluj-Napoca, 2007, p. 131.

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CÂTEVA PROBLEME PE CARE LE IMPLICÃ RÃSPUNDEREA PENALÃ A PERSOANEI JURIDICE PENTRU INFRACŢIUNILE DE CORUPŢIE ÎN DREPTUL FRANCEZ ŞI AMERICAN

Asist. univ. drd. Olimpiu A. SABÃU-POP
Facultatea de Ştiinţe Economice, Juridice şi Administrative
Universitatea „Petru Maior” Târgu-Mureş

Keywords: legal person, criminal responsability, corruption offences, differences, french law, american law.

Some problems of the criminal responsability of a legal person in corruption offences, in french and american law
Summary

The criminal accountability of a legal entity for offences of active corruption is commanded by the provision of art. 433-25 French Criminal Code if the stipulations made by art. 121-2 Criminal Code are additively ful filled. These stipulation refer to the condition that the individual that is the active subject of the offence must represent a body of the legal entity or to make up itself into a representative of the legal entity and that the offence is committed in the best interest of the legal entity. We can conclude that there are actually two different offences committed one by the individual and the other by the legal entity and that the criminal accountability of the legal entity cannot conceal that of the individual. Similarly, if an offence is committed by the individual for its personal interest the legal entity will not be able to be held criminally responsible. In the case of duty delegation the underling and the attorney can be assimilated with the representative of the legal entity.
In the U.S.A. there are two important laws against corruption that can be identified: Hobbs Act and Foreign Corrupt Practice Act. The first one, even if at first was not intended to be an anti-corruption provision, after the 1970’s was converted by jurisprudential way into a device to fight the corruption acts accomplished by public servants.

Franţa a ratificat convenţia OECD în 31 iulie 2000, iar prin Legea nr. 595 din 20001, a introdus în cadrul intern o serie de prevederi de armonizare2 a legislaţiei interne cu cele dispuse de convenţie. Celelalte acte juridice internaţionale au fost surprinse în cadrul legislativ intern pe mãsurã ce Franţa le-a ratificat3.

1 Publicatã în FO 13.06.2001, p. 9337.
2 D.D. Bocarra, Un dispositif anti-corruption corrompu d’emblee, în RD, 2000, Point de vue, p. 3.
3 A se vedea Legea nr. 99-423 din 27 mai 1999 care autorizeazã ratificarea convenţiei stabilite pe baza art. K3, par. 2, punct C al Tratatului asupra Uniunii Europene privitoare

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II. DREPTUL NOILOR TEHNOLOGII
INTRODUCTION À LA FACTURE ÉLECTRONIQUE : DROIT FRANÇAIS ET SUISSE

Frédéric PÉRON
Legal & Litigation Manager
Qualited Communication
Network System International SA

Keywords: E-invoice, electronic signature, record management, 0-paper, technical specification, legal requirement, French law, Swiss Law, Framework, electronic communication

Introduction to the electronic invoice under the french and swiss law
Summary

E-invoice. This term, borned in 1990, is today a reality for a lot of companies.
It’s a way to realize economies and improve the in-house process. Nevertheless, leading a such project is a long way because of the technical and legal specifications. Going in a no-paper process requires a strong knowledge regarding the electronic signature. We would like to present an introduction of the mains obligations the companies have to comply with under the law of France & Switzerland.

Après un difficile démarrage amorcé au milieu des années 90 1, la question du passage à la «facturation électronique» s’impose aujourd’hui aux entreprises. Le coût de l’électronique réduit significativement le coût global de l’émission d’une facture. L’émission d’une facture classique suppose une gestion sur support papier qui nécessite une organisation lourde: des équipes relativement nombreuses chargées du traitement de la facture manuelle, des processus de validation contraignants, opérations de copies et d’archivage, une circulation des factures... La transmission électronique des factures permet alors de réduire les coûts directs liés au traitement des factures papier, de fournir au système d’information des données plus complètes, ou encore de disposer d’une base de données de factures accessibles à partir de n’importe quel ordinateur, y compris depuis l’internet.

1 La facture électronique a été introduite en France par l’article 47 de la loi de finances rectificative pour 1990, mise en oeuvre par décret du 20 juin 1991. L. fin. 1990, no. 90-1169.

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LEX PERSONALITATIS: PERSONALITY, LAW AND TECHNOLOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY

Joseph A. CANNATACI
Professor of Law & Director, Centre for Law,
Information & Converging Technologies,
University of Central Lancashire, UK

“Before we consider the character of Hamlet I should like to digress briefly on a number of topics. First of all, the modern concept of “personality” was completely unknown in the sixteenth century. The Greeks had no such concept, and no word for it; in scholastic Latin, personalitas, a word unknown in Classical Latin, meant simply the quality of being a man as distinct from being an animal. During the eighteenth century the word “personality” came to mean the sum of the characteristics of an individual, and in the nineteenth century it became a reified abstraction with depths, force, and, eventually, the host of problems, difficulties, and aberrations, which you, who have these little things somewhere inside you, now know very well. Any psychologist can tell you all about them. You may say, “Oh, but Elizabethans had them, even if they didn’t mention them!” I can assure you that they belong to the world of words, not to the world of things, and that Elizabethans were just as innocent of them as they were of Newton’s law of attraction, which was once applied to almost every conceivable subject by eighteenth-century intellectuals. The theories you entertain will pass too, unless the human mind stagnates and everybody believes what he is told.
What our ancestors had instead of personalities, which are, after all “ghosts,” were characters and immortal souls” A Medievalist looks at Hamlet D. W. Robertson Jr 1980

The ink had barely dried on the signatures to the Lisbon Treaty in December 2007 before the debate started on what it all meant for privacy and data protection. In some countries and especially the UK the actual status of the treaty continues to be debated: is it a European Constitution in all but name or is it at least a quasi-constitutional piece of that part of international law we now term European law? Whatever its constitutional status1, the new document reinforces data protection law by dedicating a specific ...

1 For a more detailed examination of the background to the elevation of data protection to constitutional or quasi-constitutional status at the European level see J.A. Cannataci, P. Mifsud Bonnici, (2005), Data Protection Comes of Age: The Data Protection Clauses in the European Constitutional Treaty,in Information and Communications Technology Law, vol. 14, no.1, p.5-15 (ISSN 1360-0834 print/ ISSN 1469-8404 online).


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