REZUMAT NR. 1 AN 2009

1. Drept privat

REFUNDICIÓN Y REFORMA DEL DERECHO DE CONSUMO. EVOLUCIÓN RECIENTE DE ESTE SECTOR EN EL ORDENAMIENTO ESPANÕL

Marcos Sacristán REPRESA
Catedrático de Derecho Mercantil
Universidad de Valladolid, España

Keywords: Consumer law, consumer, user, Law for improving the consumer protection, Reformed text of the General Law for consumer and user defense, harmonization, codification, community law, reparation, damage, faulty products, fundamental consumer rights

Adaptation and reform of Consumer law. Recent evolution of this sector in the Spanish legal system
Summary

The article makes a very explicit and clear presentation of the evolution and adaptation of the Spanish legislation regarding Consumer law, to the requirements of the European Community, in order to ensure a better protection to consumers and providing them with formal legal means of obtaining reparations for damage caused by faulty products.
This paper shows the most recent Spanish legal texts on Consumer law, the legal and economical context in which they were adopted, as well as their evolution in time affected by the obligations imposed by the ECJ and by the need of a more unified regulation of this field of law. The attention is centered on the recent Law for improving the consumer protection and the Reformed text of the General Law for consumer and user defense.
The reformed text of the General Law for consumer and user defense, has certain codification merits and affected directly the General Law for consumer and user defense as well as other legal texts that regulated in a separate way subjects treated by the first, being the result of the efforts to adapt the legal system to the European community law and modifying the old legislation in the limits established by the necessity of legislative harmonization within the EU.

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„FALIMENTUL” LEGII INSOLVENŢEI – PLEDOARIE PENTRU O NECESARĂ ÎNNOIRE A CONCEPTULUI DE INSOLVENŢĂ

Prof. univ. dr. Ion TURCU
Universitatea „Babes-Bolyai”, Cluj-Napoca Facultatea de Drept
Asist. univ. drd. Mădălina STAN
Universitatea Ovidius, Constanţa

Keywords: insolvency, concept, procedure, the Romanian legislation, the French legislation, the American pattern

„The bankruptcy” of the law on insolvency – argument for a necessary update of the insolvency concept
Summary

The disappearance of a company is dramatic for both the debtor and his creditors, but especially for the debtor’s employees and their families. Its effect may broaden to the entire region in which the company is situated, bringing about a decrease in the economic performances. Never does the bankruptcy affect only an isolated company; on the contrary, its consequences are felt by the entire collectivity.
The Romanian legislation, more precisely the Law No. 85/2006 on the insolvency procedure, operates with two concepts placed on the balance pans: available money funds, on the one hand, and demandable debts, on the other hand. The French formula is situated somewhere in between the American and the national concept of insolvency, comparing the demandable debts to the available actives. The study pleads, in an argued manner, for the replacement of the current insolvency formula with the French pattern, however taking into account the realities of our country, by legally defining the concept of available actives, including the immediate enforceable actives: the cash from the pay office, the demandable claims for which writs of execution were issued, the creditor sold of the bank account, the reserves of credit consented by the bank as pay office facilities and credit opening, as well as facilities consented by the suppliers such as setting a new date of payment or spreading out payments.
This new view of the insolvency is of paramount necessity, due to both the paradoxical situation of the unavailability of money, and the relativity of the conclusion regarding the sold of a current bank account, primarily characterized by dynamism.

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FONDUL DE GARANTARE PENTRU PLATA CREANŢELOR SALARIALE PRIN PRISMA NORMELOR DREPTULUI COMUNITAR SI NAŢIONAL

Conf. univ. dr. Marioara ŢICHINDELEAN
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bărnuţiu”
Judecător – Tribunalul Sibiu

Keywords: wage, guarantee fund, claim, worker protection

The fund of guarantee for payment of wage related claims according to the community and national law
Summary

The purpose of the European Union in elaborating Directive No. 80/987/CEE on 20.X.1980 1980 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to the protection of employees in the event of the insolvency of their employer is to coerce the Member States which record differences aiming at worker protection in this field, to strive to reduce such differences, necessary to ensure a balanced economic and social development within the Community.
This Directive shall apply to the claims of all paid employees resulting from employment contracts or employment relationships agreed upon with employers who are in insolvency, regardless of such contracts or legal relations of employment being of indefinite or fixed duration, or part-time.
Within the Directive, an employer is deemed to be insolvent if a request was made for the opening of collective proceedings based on the employer’s insolvency, provided in the laws, regulations and administrative provisions of a Member State.
Moreover, Member States must provide detailed rules on the organization, financing and operation of the guarantee institutions which should observe the following principles: a) the patrimony of institutions must be independent of the operating capital of employers and it must be constructed so that the latter cannot be seized during the insolvency proceedings; b) employers shall contribute to the financing, if it is not fully covered by public authorities; c) the liabilities of institutions are considered independent in relation to the fulfillment of the obligations for funding contribution.

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PROBLEME CONTROVERSATE PRIVIND PROTECŢIA COPILULUI SI ADOPŢIA

Lector univ. dr. Codruţa HAGEANU
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bărnuţiu”
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga” din Sibiu

Keywords: child protection, higher interest, marriage, legal conditions, minimum age, adoption, grant of the court, stages, natural parents’ consent

Controversial problems regarding child protection and the adoption
Summary

The herein study aims at analyzing a number of recent regulations and jurisprudential aspects, which emphasize either the late enforcement of the international provisions on child protection, or the unsteadiness of the institutions competent of taking the specific measures, provided by law.
This is because the child protection, both by means of the parents or with the help of substitute institutions (such as the adoption), represents a reference point of paramount importance for the present society, in which the respect shown for the fundamental rights equals the actual democracy.
The first problem we approached in this framework is that of the minimum age for marriage. The second one regards the decision No. 369 of March 20th,2008 of the Constitutional Court of Romania, which stated that certain provisions of the Law No. 273/2004 on the legal regime of adoption were unconstitutional, as they were not in accordance with Art. 20 of the Constitution related to Art. 5 paragraph 1 letter a, and Art. 9 paragraph 1 of the European Convention on Child Adoption, since they did not require the natural parents’ consent before the court, together with the adoption grant application.

Protecţia copilului atât prin intermediul părinţilor, cât si prin intermediul instituţiilor substitutive, asa cum este adopţia, reprezintă un reper important pentru societatea actuală, în care respectarea drepturilor fundamentale ale fiecărei persoane echivalează cu democraţia însăsi.
Pentru acest motiv, asigurarea la nivel naţional a respectării Convenţiei cu privire la drepturile copilului si crearea unei legislaţii unitare si stabile ar trebui să constituie deziderate primordiale pentru toate autorităţile publice si organismele private implicate în acest domeniu.
Iată de ce studiul de faţă îsi propune să analizeze câteva reglementări si aspecte jurisprudenţiale recente, care denotă fie aplicarea cu întârziere a prevederilor internaţionale, fie inconsecvenţa instituţiilor abilitate.

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DREPTUL SI PROVERBELE (II)
PROPRIETATEA. OBLIGAŢIILE, CONTRACTELE

Prof. univ. dr. Călina JUGASTRU
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga” din Sibiu
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bărnuţiu”

Mots-clés: droit, adages, propriété, rapport d’obligation, bonne foi, contrat de vente, emprunt, libéralités

Le droit et les adages (II)
La propriété. Les obligations, les contrats
Résumé

La deuxième partie de l’étude recherche la relation droit – adages dans la matière de la propriété, des obligations et des contrats. Les biens de la personne, l’argent, ses valeurs à caractère économiques, font partie de son patrimoine. La propriété signifie le lien naturel, psichologique, entre l’homme et son patrimoine – un lien réglementé par les sciences juridiques. Les voies licites d’obtenir argent sont les seules acceptées par le droit. Au contraire, l’illicite est fermement sanctionné par des normes juridiques spécifiques.
D’autre part, l’obligation de l’individu de respecter sa parole, d’accomplir les prestations générées par sa propre volonté, crée des rapports qui appartiennent aux droit des obligations. La nécéssité de rembourser les dettes a transposé la loi morale dans une préscription normative, dont la source est le contrat, civil ou commercial.

Proprietatea
Bunurile si patrimoniul

Bunurile. „Împărţirea lucrurilor” îsi dovedeste perenitatea, de la dreptul roman până astăzi. Studiul Persoanelor este urmat, în mod necesar, de studiul Bunurilor; cercetarea subiectului de drept este succedată, logic, de cercetarea obiectului la care se poate aplica dreptul unei persoane1. Dacă res extra patrimonium nu pot fi supuse stăpânirii individuale, datorită naturii lor sau din cauza destinaţiei pe care au primit-o, res in patrimonio sunt lucrurile susceptibile de apropriere. Noţiunea de bun este o „construcţie a spiritului specifică dreptului creată anume pentru a înţelege si modela realitatea înconjurătoare. Dacă deosebirea dintre persoană si ...

1 I. C. Cătuneanu, Curs elementar de drept roman, ediţia a II-a, Editura „Cartea Românească” S.A., Bucuresti, 1924, p. 181.

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OBSERVAŢII ASUPRA FRUCTELOR SI PRODUCTELOR

Lector univ. dr. Cornelia MUNTEANU
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bărnuţiu”
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga” din Sibiu

Mots-clés: fruits, produits, capital, revenus, dividende

Observations sur les fruits et les produits
Résumé

La configuration des biens n’est pas toujours définitive. Ils peuvent voir leur substance s’accroître par production, ou ils peuvent se reduire ou meme epuiser. Quand la production se fait sans diminution de la substance du bien dont il procéde, il est dénommé fruit. Quand la production se fait au détriment de la chose elle-meme, ils sont qualifiés de produits.
Cette article presente quelques aspects sur les fruits et les produits, leur liaison avec le capital et les revenus et l’ intéret pratique de cette distinction.

1. Preliminarii
Configuraţia bunurilor nu este întotdeauna definitivă. Ele pot să producă alte bunuri, pot să se reducă, să se epuizeze sau chiar să dispară; dar ele pot, de asemenea, să-si câstige autonomia si să devină la rândul lor bunuri.
Pe raportul dintre accesoriu si principal1 se grefează o altă distincţie clasică dar întotdeauna actuală: cea între fructe si producte.
Potrivit art. 482 C. civ., „Proprietatea unui bun mobil sau imobil dă drept asupra a tot ce produce lucrul (…)”. Când producţia se face fără diminuarea substanţei bunului din care provin, ele sunt calificate fructe2. Când producţia se

1 Acest raport nu exclude totusi criteriul valorii. Având la bază acest cirteriu, unii autori asează această clasificare alături de distincţia dintre bunuri de capitalizare si bunuri de consumaţie (G. Cornu, Droit civil. Les biens, 13e édition, Montchrestien, Paris, 2007, p. 43). Sunt bunuri de capitalizare acelea care formează baza cea mai consistentă a averii private. Această categorie recunoaste trei specii de bunuri: a) bunuri de capitalizare imobiliare (pământ pentru cultură, teren pentru construcţii, imobile construite; b) bunuri de capitalizare mobiliară (bijuterii, colecţii preţioase, aur, valori bursiere); c) bunuri de producţie sau unităţi de exploatare (fonduri de exploatare industrială, comercială, agricolă). Sunt bunuri de consumaţie bunurile de confort sau de uz curent (obiectele casnice) precum si cele care procură o plăcere personală (automobile etc.).
2 Trebuie subliniat că această terminologie, de altfel temeinic asimilată în drept, nu corespunde nici limbajului curent (care foloseste acest termen doar pentru produsele pomilor fructiferi sau unele produse naturale – fructe de pădure), nici vocabularului economic. S-ar putea vorbi mai degrabă despre veniturile bunurilor. Însă noţiunea trebuie păstrată. „Totusi, termenul de fruct consacrat într-un sens tehnic de precizie este comod.

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CONTRACTUL COLECTIV DE MUNCĂ SI RELATIVITATEA EFECTELOR CONVENŢIILOR (II)

Lector univ. dr. Adrian CIRCA
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bărnuţiu”
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga” din Sibiu

Keywords: The collective labor contract, the relative effect of conventions, agreement, effects, derogation from the principle of relativity

The labor collective agreement and relativity of contracts (II)
Summary

The improvement of the legislative frame concerning the collective labor contracts should ensure a better enforcement of the provisions of Law No. 30/1996 in order to achieve a correct application of the relativity effects of the contract. The procedure for extending the effects of the collective labor contracts to all social partners doesn't provide the conditions for a loyal competition between economic agents.
The exceptional character of the collective labor contract as compared to relativity may be underlined depending on the degree of the collective labor contract and depending on the affiliation of the wage worker to the union organization. There is a lack of correlation between the provisions of Art. 13 and those of Art. 11 from Law No. 130/1996 on the collective labor contracts concluded at branch level, meaning that, although the parties have the duty to specify the units within which the negotiated clauses apply, the provisions of collective labor contracts for every branch are applied to all wage workers belonging to that branch. In contrast, in the case of collective labor contract concluded at the level of groups of units, the obligation of specifying the units that are a part of the agreement is correlated to the fact that it only applies to the wage workers belonging to the specified units. We do not believe that it can be held that this is a mere omission, because the lawmaker, where he wished to limit the extension of the clauses from the labor contract (see the level of groups of units), he did it explicily; in the absence of such a limitation, we cannot but ascertain that the obligation provided for the parties in Art. 13 has no sanction, as all wage workers from the units in the respective branch benefit from the advantages of the agreement.

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ROLUL STATULUI ÎN SOLUŢIONAREA CONFLICTELOR DE MUNCĂ

Lector univ. drd. Monica GHEORGHE
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bărnuţiu”
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga” din Sibiu

Keywords: labor disputes, Economic and Social Council, the role of the State, Labour Inspection

The State’s role in settling labor disputes
Summary

The State is the one drawing up the legislation designed to ensure that the fundamental rights and freedoms of citizens are being respected, a set of rules which constitute a public policy that should also be followed ad litteram by collective bargaining, and the legislation appropriate to workplace social relations which constitute a social public policy, the minimum level where social partners begin their dialogue within collective bargaining. Labor legislation includes a minimum number of employee rights, based on which the social partners can further establish more favorable or supplemental rights within the collective and individual negotiation. More specifically, the role of the State in labor relations, in work conflict resolution, is manifested in the three existing state powers.
The State is interested in any labor dispute, but it must be admitted that it „transfers a part of its authority to the social partners, as well”, who, thus, could establish settlement procedures, provided that these do not affect the procedural and substantial rights of employees.
Settling states of conflict by the Economic and Social Council can only take place before the onset of labor disputes, from this moment on the provisions of the Labor Code and Law No. 168/1999 on the settlement of labor disputes becoming enforceable. The role of the Economic and Social Council may be displayed by formulating proposals, issuing views or recommendations for settling states of conflict, and by encouraging dialogue between the parties concerned. We could say that the role of the Economic and Social Council in settling states of conflict (referring to the rights or interests of employees) is that of a conciliator.
Following the line of work conflict resolution, the current legislation does not grant explicit powers to the Labor Inspection. However, we consider that the labor inspectors can intervene to prevent labor disputes or other states of conflict, feeling the necessity of appropriate changes in orientation in terms of the role and objectives of the Labor Inspection.

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FUZIUNEA TRANSFRONTALIERĂ A SOCIETĂŢILOR COMERCIALE (II)

Asist. univ. drd. Andreea Corina TÂRSIA
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bărnuţiu”
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga” din Sibiu

Keywords: cross-border merrom, involvement of employees, merrom project, publicity formalities

Cross-border Mergence of Companies (II)
Summary

The concentration of capital through merroms and acquisitions helps the improvement of the economic and social situation by removing barriers to trade and adjustment of production structures to the Community dimension of the market.
In achieving this goal, not only the activity and establishment, but also the operation of the Company must be designed to meet both existing needs at local or regional level, but especially to be able to reorganize their structure according to the planned activity at Community level.
Having as result the increase of the dimension and the accentuation of the mobility of commercial companies1, merroms and acquisitions reflect in a pregnant manner, the impact of globalization within the European Union. In this sense, the development strategy through concentration of capital may have the effect of converting the status of national company in European company and even in international company.
To achieve these goals is necessary ensuring compliance with the protection of employees' rights regarding their involvement in the company's activity, as well as following the necessary steps to enforceability of the merrom erga omnes, to protect creditors of the company involved and produce the legal effects that are expected.

b) Constituirea societăţii europene (SE) prin fuziunea transfrontalieră si stabilirea drepturilor salariaţilor Art. 25110 alin. 1-6 cuprinde dispoziţii ce reglementează respectarea drepturilor salariaţilor de implicare în activitatea societăţii rezultate în urma operaţiunii de fuziune transfrontalieră.
Astfel, dacă societatea absorbantă sau nou-înfiinţată este o societate europeană cu sediul social în România, administratorii societăţilor participante la fuziune asigură respectarea dreptului de implicare a angajaţilor în activitatea ...

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2. Drept judiciar privat

ASIGURAREA UNEI JURISPRUDENŢE UNITARE ÎN PERSPECTIVA VIITORULUI COD DE PROCEDURĂ CIVILĂ

Prof. univ. dr. h. c. Ioan LES
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bărnuţiu”
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga” din Sibiu

Mots-clés: jurisprudence, uniformisation, projet du Code de procédure civile, recours dans l’intérêt de la loi, saisine de la Cour suprême, livraison d’une décision avant l’absolution à des questions de droit

L’assurance d’une jurisprudence uniforme dans le futur Code de procédure civile
Résumé

L'étude tend à démontrer une tendance dans notre système juridique, la réévaluation de la jurisprudence, notamment celle menée par la Cour suprême. Dans ce contexte, l'auteur examine, dans la perspective du futur Code de procédure civile, deux institutions qui peuvent contribuer à la réalisation d'une jurisprudence uniforme. Tout d'abord, il a passé en revue le recours dans l'intérêt de la loi. On peut constater des similitudes et des différences, particulièrement entre l’actuelle réglementation et celle prévue au projet de Code de procédure civile.
L'auteur estime que la solution de retenir contraignantes les décisions rendues par la Cour suprême dans l'intérêt de la loi est bienvenue. Il a considéré comme positif, en principe, le processus d’expansion de la légitimation active à d'autres sujets de droit.
La dernière partie de l'étude est consacrée à la saisine de la Cour suprême afin de livraison d'une décision avant l'absolution à des questions de droit. L'auteur estime que nous sommes en présence d'un objet utile, ce serait, mais à des abus dans l'avenir, ce qui conduira à une plus grande congestion et une cour suprême.

1. Precizări prealabile
Jurisprudenţa a îndeplinit un rol important în îndelungata istorie a dreptului, desi o investigaţie aprofundată conduce, inevitabil, la sesizarea unor diferenţe notabile între marile sisteme de drept ce formează „geografia juridică” ...

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LE STATUT DE L’HUISSIER DE JUSTICE DANS LE MONDE

Dr. H. C. Jacques ISNARD
Président de l’Union Internationale des Huissiers de Justice

Keywords: Bailiff, civil law enforcement agents, status, differences, French system, comparative law

The Legal Status of Bailiffs in the World
Summary

The subject itself – the „legal status of bailiffs” is enough to steer doubts: in fact it is not possible to speak about one legal status of bailiffs and, we would dare to add here also, of enforcement agents. Nevertheless, even as we see the differences there is a close connection that links all these professionals since they are all involved in the enforcement of court decisions and other enforceable titles.
We examine the elements that are characteristic to both of these two categories and the particularities of the French system that we think can stand as the foundation for an innovating approach.

Avant d’aborder le statut de l’huissier de justice, parlons de cette profession dont la difficulté est précisément d’en identifier les acteurs. En effet, à la différence des notaires ou des avocats dont l’appellation, à quelques variantes près, revêt un phonétisme international commun ex.: notaire, notaïo, notar … avocat, avocatto, advocat … l’huissier de justice apparait sous des appellations très contrastées: – Huissier de justice (le terme vient de huis: soit garde et de huis, huissier, gardien: soit gardien aux portes) en France, en Belgique, au Luxembourg, – Shérif, Baillif, enforcement agent en Angleterre, – Gerichtsvollzieher en Allemagne, – Kronofogdemyndigheten en Suède, – Ufficiali giudiziari en Italie, – Komornik en Pologne – Exécutorii judecatoresti en Roumanie – etc. … Cette évocation ne serait qu’anecdotique si déjà elle n’esquissait l’ébauche d’une architecture désordonnée de notre profession.
D’ailleurs le sujet lui-même „le statut de l’huissier de justice” suffit à lever le moindre doute: en effet, il n’y a pas à proprement parlé un statut de l’huissier de justice, mais „différents” statuts des huissiers de justice et empressons-nous de le rajouter: des agents d’exécution.

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RECURSURILE SPECIALE ÎN PROCEDURA CIVILĂ ROMÂNĂ (III)
RECURSURILE SPECIALE ÎN PROCEDURA CIVILĂ ROMÂNĂ DIN PERIOADA CONTEMPORANĂ1

Lector univ. dr. Sebastian SPINEI
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bărnuţiu”
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga” din Sibiu

Mots-clés: procédure civile roumaine, voies de recours, pourvoi en cassation, recours spéciaux, pourvoi dans l’intérêt de la loi, recours prévu par l’art. 3041 C. proc. civ., recours prévu par la loi d’organisation judiciaire

Les recours spéciaux dans la procédure civile roumaine (III)
Les recours spéciaux dans la procédure civile roumaine contemporaine
Résumé

Le pourvoi en cassation est l’archétype du voie de recours destinée à éliminer les violations de la loi, à supprimer les jugements irrégulières et à assurer l’unité de la jurisprudence.
De ce modéle initiale, ont été détachées des voies de recours avec des traits similaires de celles du pourvoi, mais avec des physionomies différentes en raison de quelques caractéristiques particulières.
Dans le système clasique de la Cassation, le pourvoi ou le recours ne fonctionnait pas d’une manière isolé, mais dans un assemblage, avec des autres recours spéciaux – le pourvoi dans l’intérêt de la loi et le recours pour excès de pouvoir.
Cette troisième étude examine la situation des recours spéciaux dans la procédure civile roumaine contemporaine – le pourvoi dans l’intérêt de la loi, le recours prévu par l’art. 3041 C. proc. civ. et le recours prévu par la loi d'organisation judiciaire.

1 Prezentul studiu reprezintă a treia si ultima parte a unei analize dedicate recursurilor speciale în procedura civilă română, realizată dintr-o perspectivă istorică, urmărindu-se o prezentare a sistematică a reglementărilor în materie în trei epoci distincte.

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3. Drept public

TACTICA EFECTUĂRII CONFRUNTĂRII ÎN FAZA CERCETĂRII JUDECĂTORESTI

Prof. univ. dr. Mircea Sandu BĂDILĂ
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bărnuţiu”
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga” din Sibiu

Keywords: criminal trial, judicial inquiry, confrontation, tactic of performing
the confrontation, the court’s active role

The tactic of confrontation in the judicial inquiry stage
Summary

The way in which a confrontation is carried out has to be grounded on a tactic based on the criminalist approach of its performance, and thus it represents a procedure of criminalist tactics suited for a repeated and simultaneous hearing of those who have previously made declarations in the case, in any title.
The use of the criminalist procedure of confrontation is important when hearing the defendant, since it can be a new occasion for gathering data concerning the psychological and personality aspects of those involved, as well as for ascertaining the good or bad faith in making the first or another declaration during the confrontation, and for creating a new moment in which that who has kept important information without bad faith can relate them by reactivating the memory, and in the event of contrary declarations, for creating a psychological tense moment for the insincere ones to unmask themselves.
From a tactical point of view, the confrontation has to be based on the element of surprise. The court’s granting of the confrontation, and moreover the drawing up of the aspects which are to be followed, represents an unfortunate error in tactics. The court’s active role also implies the clearing up of the controversial aspects in the defendants’ declarations, and for the tactical performance of the confrontation, the court may immediately proceed to confrontation during the same hearing, of course after previously arranging the entire procedure. In this manner, the defendants cannot reach an agreement and the psychological effect is complete.

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MANDAT DE EXECUTARE. EMITERE SI PUNERE ÎN EXECUTARE

Prof. univ. dr. Marcel Ioan RUSU
Presedintele Tribunalului Sibiu

Keywords: mandate of execution, court of enforcement, attributions, practice of the European courts

The execution mandate. Issuance and enforcement
Summary

In certain legislations such as the Japanese one, the right to enforce the final penal court orders devolves on the Public Ministry in view of a better coordination of the police forces and other state bodies.
Determination of the enforcement court is accomplished by taking into account the court which heard the cause upon its merits (in the court of first instance). The enforcement court is always the court of first instance regardless whether the measures disposed have been pronounced by this court or by the court of Appeal. The enforcement court has the general obligation to initiate the enforcement of penal orders which falls under its competence, namely to dispose the enforcement of these as well as to take the necessary measures in order to apply the enforcement.
Practically according to service order issued by the president of the court, there exists one judge or more who coordinates and supervises the penal enforcement department within each trial court. In view of exercising this duty, the judge in charge with the enforcement of the penal orders is assisted by a court clerk or several, according to the case.
The enforcement of a sentence of imprisonment and of life imprisonment is applied by the delegated judge through the issuance of the enforcement warrant for imprisonment or life imprisonment. The enforcement order is the order issued by the enforcement court. The issuance of the order is made after the period of 10 free days from the pronouncement or notification of the judgment of conviction. The problems arise in the case if this term has not been respected and if the order has been issued within the period of 10 days. The question arises whether the enforcement order is null, arrest cannot take place or, on the contrary, whether arrest of the convicted will be executed and proceedings will be taken in this regard.

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GUVERNAREA PRIN ADOPTAREA EXCESIVĂ A ORDONANŢELOR

Prof. univ. dr. Nicola IORDAN
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bărnuţiu”
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga” din Sibiu

Keywords: act of governance, legislative delegation, ordinances, excessive enacting

Governing by means of enacting excessive ordinances
Summary

Our scientific approach has proposed to undertake an objective analysis of the act of governance, in terms of acts adopted by the Romanian Government under the "legislative delegation" conferred by the Article 115 of the Romanian Constitution. In this context we presented the constitutional system of the adopted ordinances by the Romanian Government and also the set of decisions of the Constitutional Court. Also we made a statistic of the ordinances adopted by the Romanian Government by comparing it with the number of laws adopted by Parliament during 1998-2029. Our conclusion is that all governments have abused the adoption of ordinances, unacceptably undermining this way the Parliament activity.

CONSIDERAŢII INTRODUCTIVE
Orice analiză obiectivă a actului de guvernare în România trebuie fondată pe documentul în temeiul căruia Guvernul României a fost învestit cu încrederea de către Parlament.
După cum este cunoscut, art. 103 din Constituţia României intitulat „Învestitura” stipulează în alin. 3 „Parlamentul acordă încredere Guvernului cu votul majorităţii deputaţilor si senatorilor”.
În legătură cu această fază a procedurii de învestitură a Guvernului României: „Textul Constituţiei precizează foarte clar, că votul de încredere se dă asupra programului si a „listei Guvernului”, ceea ce înseamnă că parlamentarii ori acceptă lista propusă de candidatul la funcţia de prim-ministru ori o resping în întregime. Nimic nu opreste însă, ca lista să sufere modificări, urmare a dezbaterilor în Comisii sau în sedinţa în plen, dar până la vot. Acesta este si sensul discutării programului în sedinţă comună a Camerelor, respectiv a audierilor de către comisiile de specialitate ale Camerelor si celor propusi pentru viitorul Guvern”1.

1 M. Constantinescu, A. Iorgovan, I. Muraru, E. S. Tănăsescu, Constituţia României – revizuită, Comentarii si explicaţii, Editura All Beck, Bucuresti, 2004, p. 168-169.

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INSOLVENŢA UNITĂŢILOR ADMINISTRATIV-TERITORIALE – ÎNTRE POSIBILITATE SI REALITATE

Conf. univ. dr. Cristina ONEŢ
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bărnuţiu”
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga” din Sibiu

Keywords: administrative-territorial unit, insolvency, state budget, local budget, administrative decentralization, financial decentralization

The insolvency of administrative-territorial units between possibility and reality
Summary

The correct execution of local budgetary incomes represents the necessary but not sufficient condition for providing regularity and efficiency in performing expenditures and thus, in fulfilling the attributions and responsibilities of the local public authorities.
Law no. 273/2006 on local public finances brought about the necessity that the local budgetary provisions agree with those embodied in the state budget for balancing local budgets.
The herein study envisages a number of mentions regarding this normative act, taking into account the imperative of administrative decentralization which can only be achieved if based on an actual financial decentralization. In fact, during the past years one could witness a decentralization of public expenditures from state budgets (of the State) towards local budgets (of administrative- territorial units).

Realizarea corectă a veniturilor bugetare locale reprezintă condiţia necesară, dar nu si suficientă pentru a asigura ritmicitate si eficienţă în efectuarea cheltuielilor si implicit în realizarea atribuţiilor si responsabilităţilor autorităţilor publice locale.
Legea defineste bugetul local ca fiind documentul prin care sunt prevăzute si aprobate în fiecare an veniturile si cheltuielile unităţilor administrativ-teritoriale1. Considerând aspectele reţinute de către legiuitor ca fiind insuficiente pentru a delimita corect, atât natura juridică, cât mai ales funcţiile pe care le îndeplineste, am definit bugetul local ca fiind programul prin care se prevăd si se aprobă veniturile si cheltuielile anuale ale unei unităţi administrativ-teritoriale, destinate realizării sarcinilor administrative ale colectivităţilor locale si satisfacerii nevoilor publice de interes local, program ce se adoptă printr-o hotărâre a autorităţii administraţiei publice competente.

1 Legea nr. 273/2006 privind finanţele publice locale, art. 2 pct. 7.

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REDIMENSIONAREA ROLULUI STATULUI ÎN ECONOMIE

Conf. univ. dr. Carmen POPA
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bărnuţiu”
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga” din Sibiu

Keywords: system of law, State, market economy, economic politics, regulation

The readjustment of the State’s role in economy
Summary

According to the new architecture of the cohesion politics, the general orientation of the European Union is to sustain the competitiveness and economic growth, so that all the states that belong to the community space can develop as balanced as possible. In order to achieve this purpose, a legislative framework with simple, flexible and easy to implement rules and regulations in all areas of the social life was elaborated. The new legislative framework allows a better orientation on national and regional targets ensuring, at the same time, efficiency and transparency in the economic and social cohesion politics. All these encompass true challenges for the national regulations, to which they must respond effectively and in a synchronized way.

Reglementarea juridică constituie elementul esenţial al oricărui sistem de drept, rolul său fiind acela de a ghida si determina comportamentul participanţilor la circuitul juridic1. În acest context, norma juridică funcţionează ca schemă de interpretare, având o anumită viabilitate si o arie de valabilitate2. În zilele noastre, activitatea de reglementare juridică face parte din strategia generală a dezvoltării sociale.
Avem în vedere procesul reglementativ în condiţiile economiei de piaţă al cărui conţinutul se defineste, înainte de toate, prin producţia si circulaţia de mărfuri pe piaţă, respectiv prin raportul dintre cele două categorii corelative ale sale: cererea si oferta3. Corelaţia dintre aceste două elemente este una cu dublu sens de miscare, iar evoluţia lor reprezintă barometrul legăturii dintre producţie si ...

1 A se vedea Legea nr. 24/2000 privind normele de tehnică legislativă pentru elaborarea actelor normative, publicată în M. Of. României nr. 139 din 31 martie 2000, modificată prin H.G. nr. 555/2001, O.G. nr. 7/2001 si O.U.G. nr. 6/2003, republicată în M. Of. nr. 777 din 25 august 2004.
2 H. Kelsen, Doctrina pură a dreptului, Editura Humanitas, Bucuresti, 2000, p. 16; I. Vida, Manual de logistică formală, Editura Lumina Lex, Bucuresti, 2000, p. 109.
3 G. N. Niculescu, Spre economia de piaţă – eseuri de teorie si politică economică, Casa de Presă si Editură Cronica, lasi, 1990, p. 60-74.

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SUSPENDAREA RAPORTULUI DE SERVICIU AL FUNCŢIONARILOR PUBLICI PE DURATA CERCETĂRII DISCIPLINARE

Asist. univ. drd. Ana MOCANU SUCIU
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bărnuţiu” Sibiu,
Judecător – Tribunalul Sibiu

Mots-clés: fonctionnaire publique, procédure disciplinaire, rapport de service, suspension, indemnisation

La suspension de rapport de service du fonctionnaire public pendant l’enquête disiplinaire
Résumé

La faute disciplinaire commise par fonctionnaires publics dans leur activité est cherchée d’une commission spéciale, nommée commission disciplinaire. Cette commission est composée par fonctionnaires publics.
Grâce la procédure qui gouverne activité de commission, existe un certain période qui se passe pour finalise d’action disciplinaire.
Dans cette la nombreux situation commission constate la faute préjudiciel de fonctionnaire public qui est accuse pour une bonne déroulement d’activité de commission.
Dans le cas de cette catégorie, elle a droit de propose la suspension de fonctionnaire public pour tout la période nécessaire pour l’action disciplinaire.
Diffèrent système juridique, qui ont une longue expérience dans le domaine de droit de la fonction public, limitée par la loi, par le règlement le pouvoir d’autorité de suspension de fonctionnaire. Donc, le pouvoir de chef d’administration n’est pas un pouvoir excessif, et les fonctionnaires ont les droits légaux vis-à-vis de leur chef.
Dans la system juridique roumain, le droit de chef d’autorité administrative de suspension de rapport de service de fonctionnaire public este, en effet, limite stricte par la proposition de commission disciplinaire qui ne réalise pas aucune chercher de fautes réclamées. La rémunération de fonctionnaire suspende n’est pas réglementée, et les règles de droit de travaille est très grave. Dans diverses systèmes juridiques, la rémunération n’est pas suspende total; cette rémunération este redus dans tel mesure.

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ACCEPŢIUNI CONTEMPORANE ALE NOŢIUNII DE „CONSTITUŢIONALIZARE”

Asist. univ. drd. Horaţiu Alexandru RUSU
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bărnuţiu”
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga” din Sibiu

Keywords: „constitutionalization”, beyond state constitutionalization, migration of constitutional ideas, European Union, constitutionalization of international law

Contemporary meanings of „constitutionalization”
Summary

The article explores the wide range of meanings that the notion „constitutionalization” has within national and international legal doctrine, touching upon the use of this concept within the state frame and within the international polities. Following a short terminological clarification, the article is looking upon two different stances where the concept of constitutionalization is used: first, within the national constitutional systems to define the process of making the entire legal system in accordance with the constitutional norms and second, beyond state, where the constitutional discourse migrated to accommodate various public international law based polities.
This work is part of a larrom research that the author is undergoing for his doctoral studies that will be concluded with the thesis „Legal protection of human rights as a vector for constitutionalization in Europe”.

Introducere
Noţiunea de constituţionalizare pare să aibă un efect aproape magnetic asupra juristilor, astfel încât încercarea de a cuantifica multitudinea valenţelor acesteia pare de la început un demers anevoios.
Constituţionalizarea a încetat demult să mai fie instrumentul constituţionalistilor, depăsind sfera dreptului constituţional si impregnând limbajul juridic din toate ramurile dreptului. De asemenea, noţiunea de constituţionalizare apare în discursul privind ordinea juridică statală, dar si în cel privind ordinea juridică internaţională, sau suprastatală. Prezenta lucrare reprezintă un demers de identificare a modului în care a fost utilizată noţiunea de constituţionalizare în literatura juridică naţională si în literatura de specialitate internaţională si îsi propune să colecteze diferitele accepţiuni si interpretări ale acestei noţiuni. Un autor spunea că „non-juristii sunt adeseori surprinsi de freamătul cu care reacţionează juristii în momentul în care sunt menţionate cuvinte precum ...

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CONSIDERAŢII PRIVIND COMPATIBILITATEA O.U.G. nr. 50/2008 PENTRU INSTITUIREA TAXEI DE POLUARE CU DREPTUL COMUNITAR EUROPEAN

Asist. univ. Laurenţiu SONERIU
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bărnuţiu”
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga” din Sibiu

Keywords: pollution tax, discrimination, European Community law, jurisprudence

Considerations on the compatibility of the Emergency Ordinance 50/2008 on the establishment of pollution tax to European Union law
Summary

Emergency Ordinance no. 50/2008 on the establishment of pollution tax is incompatible with the European Union and other international regulations because established discriminatory tax sistem between national and imported products from other Member States of the European Union.
According to art. 90 par 1 TEC (110 TFEU), „No Member State shall impose, directly or indirectly, products of other Member States any internal taxation of any kind, in excess of that imposed directly or indirectly on similar domestic products”.
The overall aim of art. 90 (110) is to ensure free movement of goods. This article refers to internal taxes and charges impose a tax burden more consistent products from other Member States, compared with domestic products. The civil sentence nr. 2320/2008 on 05 December 2008, given in the file no. 4633/117/2008, the Tribunal of Cluj determined that: „The Ordinance. no. 50/2008 is contrary to art. 90 of the Treaty establishing the European Community, as it is intended to reduce the introduction in Romania of second-hand cars already registered in another EU member state, such as the pollution tax has been paid to this issue (Germany), favoring such sale used cars already registered in Romania and, more recently, sales of new cars produced in Romania.
However, after Romania joining the EU, this is not acceptable when the products are imported from other EU countries, as long as national tax rules decreases or is likely to decrease, even potentially, consumption of imported products, thus influencing consumer choice”.
This decision would have to represent a model for all judges in Romania, called to settle disputes concerning the interpretation intended pollution tax conformity with Community and international law.

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BIODETECŢIA JUDICIARĂ A COMPORTAMENTULUI SIMULAT. POLIGRAFUL (I)

Ioana POIANĂ
studentă, anul IV,
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bărnuţiu”
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga” din Sibiu

Keywords: polygraph, judicial biodetection, factitious behaviour, history, emotional stress detector in writing and speaking, the new type of polygraph, the polygraph used by the police of Sibiu, legal conditions

The judicial biodetection of the factitious behavior. The polygraph (I)
Summary

The aim of this paper is to analyse one of the most controversial institutions of Criminalistics, namely the polygraph technique. Most authors consider this technique useless because its results cannot be used as proof in court. However, the judicial practice reveals that magistrates have been considering this simple clue useful in their search for truth. The paper is structured into six parts.
The article starts with the definitions of the terms: judicial biodetection and factitious behavior and invokes the opinions of some of the most famous authors of this judicial science. Then it presents the technical resources that can be used for finding out whether the subject has a false or sincere behavior. The main equipments that can be used in order to detect a factitious behaviour are: the emotional stress detector in writing, the emotional stress detector in speaking and the polygraph.
The third part exposes the historical evolution of the polygraph at a worldwide level, the first, so called, lie detector being used by Cesare Lombroso, and in Romania, where it was used for the first time by the University „Babes-Bolyai” of Cluj-Napoca. After that it focuses on a new and streets-ahead type of polygraph created by the company Lafayette Instrument from the U.S.A. and makes a comparative view between this new type and the old one.
The fifth part envisages a presentation of the Lafayette poligraph that is currently used by the police of Sibiu. The herein article ends with the legislation that governs the use of this equipment and the specialists that can use it.

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III. DREPTUL NOILOR TEHNOLOGII

LE CONTRÔLE DES MARCHÉS DANS LE SECTEUR DES COMMUNICATIONS ÉLECTRONIQUES

Philippe ACHILLÉAS
Directeur, Institut du Droit de l’espace et des communications électroniques
Master spécialité Droit des activités spatiales et des communications
électroniques (Université Paris-Sud XI)

Keywords: telecommunications, regulatory framework, competition, incumbemt, significant market power, relevant market, control procedure, regulatory obligations, control ex-ante/ex-post

The control of markets in electronic communications sector
Summary

The adoption and the transposition of the new 2002 European telecommunications regulatory framework have introduced a new market control procedure in three steps. First, the European Commission is tasked with adopting a recommendation on relevant product and service markets in the electronic communications sector to identify markets displaying characteristics which may justify the imposition of specific regulatory obligations. Second, the national regulatory authorities must carry out an analysis of the relevant markets to conclude whether a market is effectively competitive. Third, where a national regulatory authority concludes that a market is not effectively competitive, it must impose to the undertakings with significant market power appropriate specific regulatory obligations on them.

La libéralisation du marché des télécommunications a conduit à la redéfinition des modes de contrôle des acteurs économiques par une combinaison de règles issues de la réglementation sectorielle et de règles générales issues du droit de la concurrence. Ainsi il est admis que les régulateurs sectoriels agissent dans le cadre d’une action ex ante, alors que l’application du droit de la concurrence répond à une approche ex post. La méthode ex ante permet la réalisation des objectifs de politique économique des Etats, notamment en intervenant sur le marché pour prévenir des comportements identifiés comme nuisibles à la concurrence effective, alors que la méthode ex post n’impose pas de comportement préalables aux personnes et laisse le marché se développer ...

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LE CONSOMMATEUR ET LE CONTRAT DE COMMERCE ÉLECTRONIQUE DANS UN ENVIRONNEMENT INTERNATIONAL. LA SIMPLIFICATION DES RÈGLES DE CONFLIT DE LOIS ET DES JURISDICTIONS PAR L’HARMONISATION EUROPÉENNE

Frédéric PÉRON
Doctorant – Institut du Droit de l’Espace des Télécommunications –
Université Paris XI

Keywords: electronic contract, consumer, international law, conflict of law, determination of jurisdiction, cross border litigation, european regulation, european code, harmonization

The consumer and electronic contract in an international environment. The simplification of the rules regarding conflict of law and jurisdiction throught the european harmonisation
Summary

What should be the consummer protection in the international and virtual world? A thin skin or royal castel? In order to resolve this question, we must consider that consummer laws are not provide to the purpose of protecting the one weak party. Consummer laws must be consider as a balance betwenn the the cyber-merchant and consummers'needs. The final objectiv is to develop the electronic market. The agreed way suggest to create an high level of trust in the virtual world. If internet was a real nightmare in the past, the conflict of laws ans jurisdiction take a new path, a simplify one in Europe. We assist to the withdrawal of the traditionnal and international private law for the benefit of a new european «code». What is the situation today in case of conflict between a professionnal and a consummer in the virtual world? The present material would present an analysis.

„Afin de promouvoir les intérêts des consommateurs et d’assurer un niveau élevé de protection des consommateurs, la Communauté contribue à la protection de la santé, de la sécurité et des intérêts économiques des consommateurs ainsi qu’à la promotion de leur droit à l’information, à l’éducation et à s’organiser afin de préserver leurs intérêts”1. C’est en ces termes que le traité fondateur de la Communauté Européenne posait la nécessaire protection de la partie faible au contrat. Les intérêts de cette partie dite faible sont très divers: ils vont de la protection contre la publicité et les ...

1 Article 153 TCE.

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ASPECTE PRIVIND PRELUCRAREA DATELOR PERSONALE ÎN DOMENIUL DREPTULUI PENAL

Georgeta BASARABESCU
Presedintele Autorităţii Naţionale pentru Protecţia
Datelor cu Caracter Personal

Keywords: personal data, processing, criminal law, courts of law, prosecution department, police, international cooperation

Aspects on personal data processing in the field of criminal law
Summary

Law No. 677/2001 on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and the free movement of such data, amended and completed, regulates operations that are performed upon personal data, such as collecting, recording, organizing, storing, use or disclosure to third parties etc., by automatic and/or non-automatic means, in the field of criminal law. The personal data used in the field of criminal law have a sensitive character, and this characteristic brings about specific rules on processing.
The courts of law and prosecution departments are personal data controllers and come under the provisions on the field of the protection of personal data. They have the obligation to declare the data and categories of data which they process, as well as the conditions in which such activities are performed, by means of the notification addressed to the National Supervisory Authority for Personal Data Processing.
The study also emodies the results of the investigations performed, according to the competence prescribed by law, by certain police units; considering the manner in which the legislation on the personal data protection is observed (namely, by the local police units and the local inspectorate of the Romanian Police and Border Police).

Legea nr. 677/2001 pentru protecţia persoanelor cu privire la prelucrarea datelor cu caracter personal si libera circulaţie a acestor date, modificată si completată, reglementează operaţiuni de colectare, înregistrare, organizare, stocare, utilizare sau dezvăluire către terţi a datelor personale etc., prin mijloace automate si/sau neautomate în domeniul dreptului penal.
Datele personale utilizate în domeniul dreptului penal au caracter sensibil, ceea ce atrage în mod justificat instituirea unor reguli speciale de prelucrare. Astfel, în temeiul prevederilor art. 2 alin. 5 din Legea nr. 677/2001, modificată si completată, aceasta se aplică, în anumite limite, prelucrărilor si transferului de ...

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OBLIGAŢIA DE INFORMARE ÎN CAZUL ÎNCHEIERII CONTRACTELOR ELECTRONICE

Asist. univ. drd. Raul Felix HODOS
Universitatea „Petru Maior” Tg. Mures

Keywords: electronic contract, obligation of information, regulation, concept, conditions, content, codes of conduct

The obligation of information in relation to electronic contract conclusion
Summary

The paper dwells upon one of the obligations that devolve upon the purveyor (acest cuvant era scris gresit si l-am corectat, insa eu as fi folosit mai simplu „provider”) of goods or services within the framework of the contracts concluded electronically.
Considering the obligation of information as being an essential preliminary element on the conclusion of electronic contracts of deliverance of goods or services is being confirmed by the national legal measures, but also by the community legislation.
However, certain modifications on the legislation in this field are necessary, both at the European and the national level, taking into account the characteristics of relative harmonization of the electronic commerce.

Conţinutul si condiţiile obligaţiei de informare Obligaţia de informare există între părţi, indiferent de modalitatea de încheiere a contractului, acestea fiind ţinute să se informeze reciproc cu privire la tot ceea ce le poate influenţa consimţământul. Neîndeplinirea acestei obligaţii conduce la vicierea consimţământului sub forma dolului prin reticenţă1. Pe de altă parte, obligaţia de informare existentă în sarcina unei părţi nu acordă dreptul celeilalte părţi de a rămâne pasivă2.
Încheierea contractului prin intermediul calculatorului presupune însă o exigenţă sporită, cu atât mai mult cu cât lumea virtuală predispune, sub acoperirea unui aparent anonimat, la o înţelerome eronată a noţiunii de bună-credinţă. Prevederile relative la obligaţia de informare sunt preluate prin traducere, cu mici excepţii, din art. 5 si 10 din Directiva nr. 2000/31/CE.

1 În acelasi sens dispune si art. 4.107 din PECL – Comisia Lando.
2 R. M. Rempelberg, Repères romains pour le droit européen des contrats, Librairie Générale de Droit et de Jurisprudence, EJA, Paris, 2005, p. 58.

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ASPECTS JURIDIQUES DES SITES INTERNET WEB 2.0

Bertrand VANDEVELDE
Avocat au barreau de Bruxelles

Keywords: Web 2, liability regime, French jurisprudence, auto regulation

Legal aspects of Internet web sites 2.0
Summary

Web 2.0 websites are user-content produced. Their contents are 24h a day renewed with only a minimal control. Belonging to new technical concepts, the Web 2.0 websites are still legally undefined. Their liability regime is also undefined. Must they be incorporated into existing categories like the Host provider category? Must they follow the Host provider liability regime? Should the different types of Web 2.0 websites be defined under new categories? If yes, who must be in charge with the definition? The legislator beforehand or the jurisprudence afterwards? This article analyzes French jurisprudence, his answers and his entanglements. It also takes into account the importance of auto regulation in regulating freedom of speech and E-Commerce through Web 2.0 developments.

INTRODUCTION
Structure technique et économique de l’Internet L’internet est un réseau, c’est-à-dire un ensemble indéfini d’ordinateurs reliés entre eux. Dans ce réseau, tous les ordinateurs „parlent” le même langage et peuvent, par principe, être à la fois des serveurs et des clients d’informations.
Dans les faits, le plus petit nombre d’ordinateurs fait fonction de serveurs: une partie de leurs contenus est volontairement rendue accessible à l’ensemble du réseau. La grande majorité des ordinateurs sont les „clients” de ce réseau. Au moyen d’un logiciel de navigation, leurs utilisateurs, les internautes, peuvent consulter les contenus mis à leur disposition.
Comme tout espace de liberté, l’Internet est rapidement devenu un des modes d’expression préféré. Plutôt que d’être de „simples lecteurs de bibliothèque”, les internautes ont voulu eux aussi mettre à la disposition d’autres des contenus qu’ils considèrent comme intéressants. Egalement, les commerçants ont souhaité se servir de l’Internet comme d’une vitrine mondiale. Structure technique simple, l’Internet est dès lors rapidement devenu un modèle économique incontournable.
Ce qui est simple dans le principe se complique lorsque le nombre d’ordinateurs participant au réseau augmente de façon très importante. C’est le cas de l’Internet.

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