1. Drept privat

Prof. univ. dr. Ovidiu UNGUREANU
Lector univ. dr. Cornelia MUNTEANU
Facultatea de Drept din Sibiu Facultatea de Drept din Sibiu

Keywords: personality rights, new Civil Code, the right to one’s own image, notion, autonomy, authorization, limits, image agreement

Personality rights: the right to one’s own image within the new Civil Code

Every person has the right to not have her image reproduced or published without previous authorization. Just as the name, the person’s image is protected as an identity element of the person. The image is a representation of the physical features of the person; it is both a form and a substance, it is an external dimension of the human being. It represents a privileged manifestation of the personality. The law protects the person against any violations brought to the image by means of the so called „right to image”.
The right to image is autonomous, namely it cannot be reduced to another personality right. From this perspective, the right to image does not overlap the right to respect of the person’s private life.
The portrayal of a person by means of a photo, movie, drawing, internet network etc. requires the consent of that person; the consent given to one person does not necessarily imply that it is given also to others. In every case, the consent is presumed to be given for the interception and the distribution of a correct image of the person and not for a deformed representation.
The exercise of the right to one’s own image (as well as to one’s voice) cannot be absolute. The public order and interest set restrictions in what concerns the „right to veto” of the person to forbid the interception and reproduction of her image.
The person’s right to image is lost at the moment of death. This is so because the person’s image is nothing more than the shape of the human body, following its fate; however there still remains the image of the unanimated body which is protected in this quality.

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Maria Fernanda JUPPET EWING
Decano Universidad UNIACC, Chile
Magister en Derecho de la Empresa, Universidad del Desarrollo
Magister en Administración de empresas, Universidad de Valencia

Keywords: antitrust, leniency, poster, collusion

A general vision on the benefit of leniency in Chilean antitrust legislation

One of the main issues that have affected the studies and application of antitrust law in the last years have being persecute and proof the existence of multilateral conducts, figures that have acquired a particular relevance in global international markets.
In this line of events, one of the proposed solutions to generate enough evidence to persecute this illicit conducts have being the introduction of leniency in the prosecutorial antitrust system.
Leniency agreements, are nowadays a frequent tool in the investigation processes previous discovery in the US System, and it has being incorporated in the European Union legislative system since 1999, with some modifications.
In Latin America, since the first modifications to the antitrust prosecutorial systems, of the earliest 2000, and it`s subsequent reforms, have introduced the leniency agreements as an effective tool against collusion agreements.
This article, tries to give to the reader a general view about the recent changes of the prosecutorial system in the Chilean antitrust laws, after the incorporation of leniency as a tool to generate enough evidence to dismember poster and collusive agreements.


Una de las principales temáticas que ha influido en los estudios y en la aplicación del Derecho de la Libre Competencia durante los últimos años, está dada por la persecución y prueba de los ilícitos plurilaterales, los cuales han adquirido una particular relevancia en los mercados internacionales.

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Nicolás OXMAN
Profesor de Derecho Penal
Universidad Autónoma de Chile
Magíster en Derecho Penal – Universidad de Talca

Keywords: Criminal law, liberty, security, risk society, child pornography, storage of child pornography material, legitimating punitive power, fundamental right to intimacy, Chilean legal system, Law Nº 19.927 from the 14th of January 2004

Criminal law and the storage of child pornography material-
Manifestation of the criminal law of the enemy?

The tension between liberty and security gives in the nowadays risk society almost all the time precedent to the last one. We are taking about a form of organization and of communicative interaction, characterized by a series of factors that people consider to be essentially negative, most of them related to the fear of technological progress, allowing new realities that prove to be in some of the developed countries, a threat to individual safety and to the social state.
In this new society model, the criminal law system appears to be ineffective, having to deal with the generalized need of prevention in front of the everyday more unimaginable and imperceptible danroms that bring new and complex forms of criminality. The classic guaranties of criminal law are in this society focused not as often on protecting the individual but more on its punitive power, in order to protect the society from any future risks that may affect someone’s interest, and that would legitimate various social actors to demand participation in the process of creation and shaping of criminal law.
The actual role of criminal law in this society is the center theme of this work and it is planned to be revealed by analyzing how certain deeds are considered crimes not taking into consideration that this might affect the human rights. The example proposed here is that of the crime of storing child pornography material, ruled in paragraph 2 of art. 374 bis, Law Nº 19.927/2004 and how it might affect the fundamental right to intimacy.
It is important to make a correct identification of the „enemy”, to whom the criminal law is meant to be applied and to do the necessary changes in the criminal system, in order to respect the principles of a democratic society governed by the rule of law.

*) El presente trabajo corresponde a una ponencia presenta en el I Congreso Nacional de Estudiantes de Derecho Penal, organizado por la Universidad Arturo Prat, en Iquique, en septiembre del año 2008.

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Catedrática de Derecho Mercantil
Universidad Complutense

Keywords: The Second Company Law Directive 77/91/CEE, modifying proposals, legal capital, Directive 2006/68/CE, company law, fair value, North American model, Revised Model Business Corporations Act(RMBCA), stated capital, no par value shares, solvency test financial covenants, fraudulent conveyance, equitable subordination, legislation on Bankruptcy

Some thoughts over the function (usefulness) of the legal capital as a method for protecting creditors

The article presents the latest ideas and proposals expressed at the European Union level that intend to achieve the modernization of company law. It draws the attention that, currently, the legal capital used as means of protection for creditors is passing through a period of crises since there are opinions advocating for the abolition of the existent system of legal capital, either by substituting it or by creating the possibility for the member states to choose other alternatives. All these in order to facilitate capital related measures of public limited companies, enabling them to react, with regard to capital size and capital structure, to developments in the markets more promptly and at less cost.
The proposal presented by the Commission in 2004 (COM(2004) final) contains simplifications measures set out in the 1999 recommendations of the SLIM – the Simplification of the Legislation on the Internal Market – Working Party and those of the „High Level Group of Company Law Experts” in its 2002 report.
The present work intends to show the latest developments in the existing debates over the legal capital and especially regarding its most important function, that of protecting the company’s creditors, as well as the opinions over some of the alternative solutions proposed by the North American legal system.

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Catedrático de Derecho Mercantil
Universidad de Córdoba, España

Keywords: commercial contracts, contracts commercial character, commercial law, civil law, objective criteria, inclusion criteria, criteria of technical-legal analogy, commercial character mixed acts, law of obligations, law of contracts

The problem of the commercial character of the contract in the Spanish legal system

The article is thought to be a presentation of the problem regarding the commercial character of the contract in the Spanish legal system. To be more precise, it talks about the ways to distinguish civil contracts from commercial ones, due to the fact that both civil and commercial codes regulate over almost the same kind of contracts.
The article is divided in five sections, starting from a short exposition concerning the commercial character of a contract.
Establishing rules that make it possible to distinguish between the civil or commercial character of the contract is envisaged as a matter of particular importance. The author makes a presentation of the juridical opinions regarding this topic, belonging to the majority of the doctrine as well as to the minority.
The opinion of to the majority of the doctrinaires stands in favor of the idea that trading contracts have a commercial character, referring to the provisions of the commercial code. The objective criteria is meant to distinguish the commercial character of the contract taking into consideration its nature, independently of the fact that the contractors have the quality of traders or not. Among the presented criteria are the inclusion criteria and the criteria of technical-legal analogy.
Other topics are: the commercial character of mixed acts, as well as a suggestion de lege ferenda referring to the possibility of uniting the law of obligations and the law of contracts, analyzing the possibilities and limits, to be taken into consideration.
All in all, the presentation made over this issue makes it possible to establish some criteria that should allow a more easy way to make the distinction and identify the commercial contracts.

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drd. Cristina TUDOR
Universitatea din Valladolid
Facultatea de Drept

Keywords: the Competition Law, anti-competitive conduct, civil action, compensation

The assement of prejudice in the private enforcement of the community law of competition

The private application of the Competition Law consists mainly of civil actions for the granting of remedies with the purpose of reducing the effects caused by an anti-competitive conduct. It must be stated that, at a community level, the private enforcement of the Competition Law is not fully developed and that the most alarming element in this regard is the small number of actions for compensation consequent on an anticompetitive conduct.
According to some specialists’ opinion, this underdevelopment stage is due to an array of obstacles amongst which stands out the fact that the assessment of prejudice caused by an anti-competitive conduct is possible in an incertitude manner.
Naturally, the compensation covers both the real prejudice and the profit loss. In order to demonstrate the real prejudice one does not have to make an extra effort but that of proving the facts presented in the failed complaint, whereas for the profit loss we encounter an additional problem since this prejudice is not yet substantiated. The challenge stands within the reality that this prejudice can not possibly be proven with the same certainty as the real one. While the evaluation of the real prejudice can be accurately achieved, the quantification of the profit loss demands a probabilities exam which, in the best case scenario, can lead to the highlighting of a quantity that is close to the real value of the prejudice, but this real value shall never be reached.
Moreover, the problem of establishing the real value of the prejudice was not solved. A special pattern that can be applied by every expert and that can determine a value as close as possible to the real one is yet to be discovered.

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Lector univ. drd. Monica GHEORGHE
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga”, Sibiu
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bărnuţiu”

Keywords: labour disputes, individual labor disputes, collective labor disputes, alternative resolution, judicial resolution, conciliation, mediation, arbitration

Regulation of labour disputes and their resolution within states which are not members of the european Union

The herein study is dedicated to the analysis of the labor legislation within a number of states which are not members of the European Union, with the aim of underlying the legislative solutions adopted in what regards the labor dispute resolution by legal or alternative means. We outline the fact that, within these states, both individual and collective labor disputes are legally regulated, the states share the negotiation and the reaching of compromise between the parties to the dispute, however the procedures used by each state in the attempt to settle labor disputes differ in what the details are concerned.

Prezentul demers are ca obiect analiza legislaţiei muncii în unele state care nu sunt membre ale Uniunii Europene, cu scopul de a surprinde soluţiile legislative adoptate pentru soluţionarea conflictelor de muncă, pe calea judiciară si prin mijloace alternative. Evidenţiem faptul că, în aceste state, sunt consacrate legal conflictele individuale si colective de muncă, statele împărtăsesc negocierea si ajunromea la un consens între părţile conflictului, dar procedurile utilizate de către fiecare stat în încercarea de soluţionare a conflictelor de muncă diferă sub aspectul detaliilor.
1. Israel
Relaţiile de muncă în Israel îsi găsesc reglementarea în Constituţie, legi, acorduri colective si contracte individuale de muncă *). Aceste izvoare legale sunt interpretate de Tribunalul Naţional de Muncă **), organism judiciar principal.

**) În 1969 Knesset (כנסת, „adunare”, în limba ebraică este Parlamentul unicameral al statului Israel si se află la Ierusalim) a adoptat Legea tribunalelor de muncă si astfel a fost format un sistem judiciar distinct dedicat problemelor colective si individuale de muncă. Aceste tribunale de muncă au jucat un rol important în dezvoltarea legii muncii si securităţii în Israel.

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Asist. univ. dr. Andreea Corina TÂRSIA
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga”, Sibiu
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bărnuţiu”

Keywords: judicial reorganization, insolvency, remediable insolvency

Aspects of the jurisprudence on the conditions and procedure of judicial reorganization

Judicial reorganization of the merchant debtor is a procedure of insolvency forced or collective execution, designed to redress the trader found in financial difficulty, in order to settle through payment commercial debts due before the opening of the procedure and which become due during the course of the reorganization plan. It is a measure of credit protection, but also a means by which the debtor, aware of his lack of liquidity, places himself at law`s disposal, through the bankruptcy judge, trying to revive his business based on an adequate plan. In order to apply the provisions of Law No. 85/2006, the court invested with the request for initiation of proceedings has to determine the cumulative fulfillment of certain admissibility conditions.

Pentru a cere cu succes declansarea procedurii de reorganizare judiciară sau de lichidare patrimonială totală este necesară întrunirea cumulativă a unor condiţii, a căror existenţă nu poate fi ignorată deoarece se află în conexiune cu reguli economico-financiare si cu norme ale Codului de procedură civilă.
În prezent, condiţiile de admisibilitate a cererii, precum si ordinea de derulare a procedurilor si de efectuare a operaţiunilor specifice fiecărei proceduri se află în ambiguitatea generată de lipsa tehnicii de sistematizare a legii, de redundanţa textului legal si de precaritatea structurii logice a normelor juridice.
Întrucât legiuitorul nu s-a preocupat de reglementarea ordonată a condiţiilor de admisibilitate a cererii, nici a fazelor care trebuie parcurse, începând cu deschiderea, continuând cu derularea si până la închiderea procedurii, jurisprudenţa a înregistrat soluţii diferite.

*) „Această lucrare a fost finanţată din contractul POSDRU/89/1.5/S/61968, proiect strategic ID 61968 (2009), cofinanţat din Fondul Social European, prin Programul Operaţional Sectorial Dezvoltarea Resurselor Umane 2007-2013”.

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Cristina Ramona DUŢĂ
Judecător Judecătoria Constanţa

Keywords: matrimonial agreements, freedom of matrimonial agreements, principles, conditions of validity

Few considerations on the matrimonial agreement

The Matrimonial agreement, regulated by The New Civil Code of Romania represents an agreement concluded before marriage, or during marriage, which regulates the patrimonial relationships between spouses. In this study, we examined the matrimonial agreement, starting with its appearance and evolution, the reasons behind the establishment and improvement of this institution in time, as well as the review of its main form the ante-nuptial marriage contract which exists today in countries with a different matrimonial history and culture.
In this study we incorporate the aspects related to the content and the structure of the matrimonial agreements by examining the notion, origin, principles and conditions of validity.

În condiţiile în care tendinţa, în majoritatea sistemelor de drept, este de a institui reglementări flexibile în materia regimurilor matrimoniale, reglementarea actuală, prevăzută în Codul familiei român se dovedeste a fi una rigidă, constrângătoare, fără nici o alternativă.
După cum se exprima plastic un autor român, „legiuitorul trebuie să se ferească a da soţilor reţete obligatorii, permiţându-le să intervină singuri, pe calea convenţiilor matrimoniale, spre a-si rezolva cum cred de cuviinţă problemele matrimoniale, evitând astfel neînţeleromi care ar putea pune în discuţie valabilitatea căsătoriei” *).
În esenţă, noul Cod civil propune revenirea la principiul libertăţii convenţiilor matrimoniale, permiţând viitorilor soţi să aleagă între regimurile matrimoniale reglementate, si anume între comunitatea legală, separaţia de bunuri sau comunitatea convenţională (art. 312 alin. 1 al Legii nr. 287/2009).
După modelul Codului civil francez si al Codului civil al provinciei Quebec, care au constituit principalele surse de inspiraţie la elaborarea noului Cod civil, se propune ...

*) V. D. Zlătescu, Sugestii pentru viitorul Cod al familiei, în RRD nr. 3/1972, p. 69.

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drd. Ioan MUNTEAN
Avocat, Baroul Sibiu

Mots-clés: acte juridique civil, cause, définition, règlementation, structure, caractère unitaire, conditions de valabilité, preuve, fonctions, utilité, domaine d’application

Aspects théoriques et pratiques concernant la cause de l’acte juridique

La cause ou le but de l’acte juridique civil comprend cet élément qui consiste dans l’objectif poursuit par les parties au moment de sa conclusion. Celle-ci est une condition de fond, essentielle, de validité et générale de l’acte juridique civil.
La théorie de la cause dans le droit civil roumain a un caractère unitaire, sans faire la différence entre les actes à titre onéreux et les actes à titre gratuit. Dans la structure de la cause de l’acte juridique civil il y a deux éléments qui se trouvent dans une relation d’interdépendance: a) le but immédiat (causa proxima), nommé aussi le but de l’obligation, suppose la représentation du but direct et immédiat du consentement, et il est établit pour les catégories principales des actes juridiques civiles; b) le but médiat (causa remota), nommé aussi le but de l’acte juridique, il consiste dans le motif déterminant de la conclusion de l’acte juridique. Ce motif suppsose soit les traits d’une prestation, soit les qualités d’une personne et représente la cause impulsive qui a provoqué la conclusion de l’acte juridique. Le but médiat est caractérisé par le fait qu’il est concret, subjectif et variable, d’une catégorie d’actes juridiques à une autre, et même dans le cadre de la même catégorie, d’un acte juridique à un autre.
Pour être valable, la cause de l’acte juridique civil doit accomplir, d’une manière cumulative, les conditions suivantes: a) exister; b) être réelle; c) être licite et morale.
Nécessitant la présence obligatoire de la cause, le Code civil protège les parties envers certaines obligations qui n’ont pas un but justificatif. Dans la base de cette condition légale, la partie intéressée peut obtenir l’annulation de l’obligation sans cause ou de celle basée sur une cause fausse.
En même temps, parce qu’elle impose le fait que l’obligation ou l’acte juridique ait une cause licite et morale, la loi civile protège l’intérêt public, qui impose que la liberté de volonté des parties au moment de la conclusion de l’acte juridique ne soit pas utilisée avec un but contraire à la loi ou aux règles de cohabitation sociale.

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Lect. univ. drd. Adrian Alexandru BANCIU
Universitatea Crestină „Dimitrie Cantemir”
Facultatea de Drept, Cluj-Napoca

Keywords: simulation, fictivity, disguise, matrimonial convention, limits of simulation, inopposability, revocatory action, fraud of the third’s interests, action in simulation, proof of simulation

Simulation within matrimonial conventions

The study „Simulation within Matrimonial Conventions” approaches the analysis of the well-known legal institution of simulation within the civil law, but it does it within a new frame, that of patrimonial relationships between spouses.
Along the investigation the author observes the characteristics of simulation in the context of some special conventions, intuitu personae, whose parties may be only the future wives or husbands.
In this context, the forms which can be taken by simulation are reduced from three to two, namely: fictivity and disguise, as the third form in common law – interposition of persons – is excluded implicitly in matrimonial conventions, because of the intuitu personae character of these conventions, in which only spouses can be parties, and not other interposed persons.
The study also brings into debate the procedural devices of defense regarding the rights and interests of other persons against the simulant spouses in matrimonial conventions.
As a whole, the study proves to be an interesting and relevant analysis on simulation in matrimonial conventions – a new institution in our Civil Code.

1. Sediul materiei
Prevederile noului Cod civil în materie de simulaţie se reduc la un singur articol – 331 – potrivit căruia „Actul secret prin care se alege un alt regim matrimonial sau se modifică regimul matrimonial pentru care sunt îndeplinite formalităţile de publicitate prevăzute de lege produce efecte numai între soţi si nu poate fi opus terţilor de bună credinţă”.
Pentru înţeleromea specificului acestei instituţii în cadrul convenţiilor matrimoniale va fi necesar să raportăm acest unic text – 331 – si la alte texte din ...

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2. Drept judiciar privat


Prof. univ. dr. Ioan LES
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga”, Sibiu
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bărnuţiu”

Mots-clés: intervention volontaire, intervention forcée, la demande en garantie, l’introduction en cause du titulaire du droit, l’introduction en cause par le juge, procédure noncontencieuse

L’intervention des tiers dans la conception du nouveau Code de procedure civile

L’étude de l’auteur examine l’intervention des tiers dans le procès civil dans la concéption du nouveau Cod de procédure civile. Toute d’abord, l’auteur souligne que le nouveaux Cod de procédure civile a emprunté quelques règles de l’ancien Code de procédure civile, mais en même temps a adopté des règles tout à fait nouvelles.
Dans la première partie de l’article, l’auteur a examiné les changements apportés par le législateur dans le domaine de l’intervention volontaire. Il a remarqué que le nouveau Code de procédure civile a clarifié quelques problèmes controversés pendant l’application de l’actuel Code de procédure civile.
La deuxième partie de l’article est consacrée à l’intervention forcée. L’auteur nous présentes les principaux traits de l’intervention forcée, en insistant sur l’utilité et sur le régime juridique de l’introduction en cause par le juge, qui est une institution nouvelle dans le droit judiciaire privé roumain.

1. Consideraţii introductive
Noul Cod de procedură civilă, adoptat prin Legea nr. 143/2010, conţine două categorii de reglementări, unele preluate din vechea noastră reglementare procesuală si unele novatoare. Un atare mod de reglementare, mai cu seamă în privinţa marilor codificări, ne apare ca fiind natural. În adevăr, ori cât am dori să fim de moderni sau „novatori”, este greu să ignorăm trecutul nostru, nu doar cel istoric, ci si cel juridic.

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Professor James A. STRAZZELLA
Professor of Law and J. G. Schmidt Chair in Law
Temple University Law School, Philadelphia Pennsylvania, USA

Mots-clés: l`idée de présence, litige in absentia, témoins, affrontement des témoins, contre-interrogatoire, droits des défendeurs, droits fondamentaux, capacité d'ester en justice, présence significative, présence constructive, perte du droit de présence, présence numérique, témoignage enregistré en vidéo, témoignage en cas des mauvais traitement infligé à un enfant, téléprésence, présence transmise par moyens électroniques, questions émergentes, processus judiciaire Anglo-Americaine, procès penal Americain, Constitution des États-Unis, décisions de la Cour Suprême

Le concept de la „présence” dans la loi

L’idée de presence est multivalente; on peut l’identifier en métaphisique, en littérature et dans plusieurs domains. L’important est que le régime de la „présence” en droit (particulièrement dans le droit anglo-américain) ajoute une nouvelle dimension au concept. L’importance cruciale que la „présence” implique, peut être remarquée en particulier en relation avec les principes fondamentaux du processus pénal. En outre, l’émergence des nouvelles technologies offre la possibilité de la „présence électronique” et la prochaine réglementation contribuera au réevalution du concept.
Le jugement in absentia, l’impossibilité d’interrorom les témoins et les preuves enregistrées sur video sont autant des defis à la justification et à l’importance du principe de la „presence”.
L’étude analyse brièvement les aspects de la „présence” dans le système juridique anglo-américain et les motifs pour lesquels le concept est considéré tant important. On analyse, aussi, les nuances émergentes de la „présence” à l’époque contemporaine, où les technologies électroniques offrent des nouvelles opportunités et perspectives, liées à la „presence” numérique.

*) This article was presented as a paper at an interdisciplinary and international conference on „The Idea of Presence”, University of Bucharest.

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drd. George Eduard ROGHINĂ

Keywords: European Court of Human Rights, „the right to an examination of the case in a reasonable period of time”, the reasonability of the period, criteria

Considerations on the „right to an examination of the case in a reasonable period of time” regulated by Article 6 paragraph 1 of the European Convention on Human Rights

In the European Court of Human Rights, the determination of „the right to an examination of the case in a reasonable period of time” consists in the affirmation of the idea of justice. In fact, one of the dimensions of justice is its efficacy and, thus, an utterly correct decision given out of time (in both ways, too long or too short) will never satisfy the necessity of both parts seeing their rights defined.
The idea of reasonable term is an idea that has been constantly defined and that assumes different dimensions concerning the character of a process. In civil matters, the period starts with the initiation of the proceedings in court and such idea must be faced in general terms, concerning mainly some preliminary administrative phases that are imposed by the State legislation as mandatory in view of the subsequently presentation of the cause.
The most important criteria to evaluate the reasonability of the period are: a) the process complexity, b) the behavior of national authorities, c) the behavior of the applicant himself, d) what the applicant demands.
Important to mention is that only the delays that were due to the responsible authorities can be imputed to the States and that is why they are the only responsible for checking if article 6, paragraph 1, was or was not violated, breached.
Also, concerning the judicial organization, States are sovereign and the European Court of Human Rights does not impose any specific model on them, as long as their politics, legislations and functional board obey by the „principle of decisions in a reasonable term”.

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Drd. Alexandru SUCIU
Avocat, Baroul Sibiu

Mots-clés: exception de nullité, inadmissibilités, fine de non recevoir, exceptions de procédure, exceptions de fond, défenses de fond, délimitations, exceptions de droit matériel, le Nouveau Code de Procédure Civile, modalité d’invoquer, modalité de solution

Incidents procéduraux qui empêchent l’examen en fond de l’action civile (I)

A part les exceptions de procédure et les exceptions de fond, il y a d’autres institutions de droit processuel dont l’effet est l’empêchement de l’examen en fond d’une action civile, ayant pour conséquence la déviation du cours du litige de son chemin naturel. Ces incidents procéduraux n’ont pas la nature juridique des „exceptions processuelles” proprement dites mais, des certains points de vue, elles leur ressemblent. La ressemblance peut résulter soit des effets qu’ils ont sur le litige civil, soit d’une confusion sémantique, beaucoup d’eux étant appelés „exceptions” (l’exception d’illégalité d’un acte, l’exception de nullité, l’exception de non constitutionnalité etc.)
Autres systèmes de droit1 ont donné une réglementation distincte à ces incidents. Ainsi, la procédure civile française prévoit l’institution de la „fin de non recevoir” en tant qu’obstacles qui empêchent l’examen en fond du procès civil. Dans le système de droit roumain tant les fins de non recevoir que les inadmissibilités ont justement une consécration doctrinaire, leur introduction dans la législation civile n’étant pas considérée opportune par la majorité des spécialités du droit processuel civil.
L’arrêt de l’examen en fond du litige peur être temporaire ou définitif, dépendant de l’incident invoqué devant l’instance. Les incidents peuvent concerner l’acte d’introduire une instance (les inadmissibilités ou les fins de non recevoir), un acte juridique utilisé dans le procès civil (l’exception d’illégalité ou l’exception de nullité) ou même un texte légal concernant le litige (l’exception de non constitutionnalité).
On va analyser à tour ces incidents procéduraux par rapport à l’institution générale des exceptions processuelles.

1 Cercetare realizată în cadrul proiectului POSDRU 7706 „Cresterea rolului studiilor doctorale si a competitivităţii doctoranzilor într-o Europă unită”, cofinanţat din Fondul Social European prin Programul Operaţional Sectorial Dezvoltarea Resurselor Umane 2007-2013.

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Drd. Cornel TEREACĂ

Keywords: enforceable title, European Enforceable Title, Regulation No. 805/2004

The main enforceable titles

The enforceable title represents the fundament of the forced execution. No matter the field of law to which we refer, civil, criminal, banking, commercial, transportation etc., the enforceable title is compulsory for any procedure and form of forced execution. This is the reason for which this study is aims at a brief analysis of the main enforceable titles.
The multitude of enforceable titles, provided and recognized by different laws, reveals a special importance of these acts, procedural documents that the legislator had in mind when elaborating the legislative process. The examination of every of these titles is difficult within this study. For this reason we will especially refer to the courts’ decisions, arbitral decisions, the notary’s authentic papers, order tickets, bills of exchange, checks and the leasing contract.
A special attention is given to the European Enforceable Title, community legal document which up to this moment has had in our country a limited application. The approach follows the Regulation No. 805/2004 and the European regulation in the field.

În conformitate cu dispoziţiile art. 372 C. proc. civ., executarea silită se va efectua numai în temeiul unei hotărâri judecătoresti ori al unui alt înscris care constituie titlu executoriu.
Asadar, titlul executoriu este definit ca fiind înscrisul întocmit în conformitate cu prescripţiile legii si în baza căruia creditorul poate solicita valorificarea creanţei pe care acest înscris o constată *). Asa cum este definit titlul executoriu în diferite lucrări de specialitate **), rezultă ...

*) I. Les, Tratat de drept procesual civil, ediţia 4, Editura C.H. Beck, Bucuresti, 2008, p. 965.
**) Pentru o analiză amănunţită a se vedea: I. Les, Legislaţia executării silite. Comentarii si explicaţii, Editura C.H. Beck, Bucuresti, 2007, p. 41; S. Zilberstein, V. M. Ciobanu, Tratat de executare silită, Editura Lumina Lex, Bucuresti, 2001, p. 148; I. Deleanu, Tratat de procedură civilă, ediţia 2, Editura C.H. Beck, Bucuresti, 2007, vol. II, p. 534-535; G. Boroi, Drept procesual civil, note de curs, Editura Romfel, Bucuresti, 1993, vol. II, p. 210.

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drd. Oana Roxana BEURAN
Notar public
Camera Notarilor Publici, Bucuresti

Keywords: notary public, notary activity

The harmonization of notary procedures with the European regulations

According to the provisions of Law no. 36/1995 concerning the notaries public, the notary activity is represented by the notary documents and legal aid. Also, the notary public is vested to fulfill a service of public interest, having the status of an autonomous function.
From the material competency of the notary public, the authentication procedure appears sometimes, in cases expressly provided by law, as a conditions ad validitatem of the legal document that follows to be concluded by the contracting parties.
For example, this thing is reflected in the real estate field, meaning that in case of land alienation or alienation of a land also, the contract has ad validitatem to have a testify, authentic form, another example being the grant contract, which, regardless of its object, has to be concluded under authentic form. Our country, represented by several public and probationer notaries attended during period 2000-2006, respectively 2001 in Germany, respectively France, to a program of courses for perfecting the notary activity in Romania.

1. Definiţiile legale privind noţiunea de „notar public” si de „activitate notarială” Conform Legii nr. 36/1995 a notarilor publici si a activităţii notariale, astfel cum a fost modificată si completată ulterior, „Activitatea notarială asigură persoanelor fizice si juridice constatarea raporturilor juridice civile sau comerciale nelitigioase, precum si exerciţiul drepturilor si ocrotirea intereselor, în conformitate cu legea” (art. 1) si de asemenea „Se realizează de notarii publici prin acte notariale si consultaţii juridice notariale, în condiţiile prezentei legi” (art. 2).

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3. Drept public


Frédéric PÉRON
Chercheur en droit,
Université Paris-Sud 11, France

Keywords: outer space, sovereignty, space dominance, policy, appropriation, peace

The spatial freedom in relation to the private and public interests

The space is an issue of power and fascination, Mastering space is controlling the information society. EU needs an extended space policy focuses on the application, to exploit space technologies in support of policies and objectives of the Union: faster economic growth, job creation and industrial competitiveness, enlargement and cohesion, sustainable development, security and defense. The stakes for the United States is to ensure the continuity of their doctrine of „space dominance” by combining civil and military activities. But in the middle of this interest battle, the Outer Space Treaty provides the basic framework on international space law, including the following principles: „outer space is not subject to national appropriation by claim of sovereignty, by means of use or occupation, or by any other means; & the Moon and other celestial bodies shall be used exclusively for peaceful purpose”.

1. La space dominance L’espace est un enjeu de puissance et de fascination. Il a été un des enjeux majeurs de la guerre froide Il est le terrain d’une compétition technologique entre l’URSS et les Etats-Unis où chacun tente de démontrer sa supériorité.
Débutant en 1957 avec Spoutnik-1, le premier satellite artificiel de l’Histoire, l’objectif devient rapidement orienté vers les vols habités et l’envoi d’un homme sur la Lune. Les États-Unis ont bien compris l’enjeu de pouvoir lié à la maîtrise de l’espace extra-atmosphérique. Ils ont ainsi fait évoluer leur doctrine extérieure vers une volonté de maîtrise complète de l’espace („Space dominance”).

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Conf. univ. dr. Carmen POPA
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga”, Sibiu
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bărnuţiu”

Keywords: reasonable term of detention, reasonable term of procedures, fair court process, guarantee

The guarantee of the person’s right to liberty and security before the national courts and the European Court of Human Rights, referring to the reasonable term of the procedures

If during the criminal investigation, the preventive detention of the juvenile or adult defendants cannot exceed a certain period of time (180 days for the adults and 60 or 90 days for minors between 14-16 of age and those older than 16) the Romanian legislation does not refer to the reasonable term in the field of the first instance court, the national judge will only have to apply 5 paragraph 3 from the European convention. From this point of view, turning to the ECHR jurisprudence, of the criteria taken into consideration by the European Court on this particular subject is the real benefit of the practitioners. It is mandatory to be adopted as soon as possible of some regulations applicable to the reasonable term of the preventive detention and in judicial investigation phase, in order to align the national legislation to the requirements of the community law and for a better and operative management of the act of justice.

Dreptul la un proces echitabil, reglementat de art. 6 din Convenţia europeană a drepturilor omului *) constituie una dintre premisele asigurării preeminenţei dreptului într-o societate democratică **).

*) Denumită în continuare Convenţia europeană.
**) A se vedea C. Bîrsan, Convenţia europeană a drepturilor omului, Comentariu pe articole, vol. I, Drepturi si libertăţi, Editura All Beck, Bucuresti, 2005, p. 393.

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Lector univ. dr. Laura-Maria CRĂCIUNEAN
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga” din Sibiu
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bărnuţiu”

Keywords: Council of Europe, European Union, freedom of thought, conscience and religion, article 9 of the ECHR, European Convention on Human Rights, freedom of religion, religious diversity, religious symbols, Muslim veil

Council of Europe, European Union and Romania, about Freedom of Thought, Conscience and Religion

This article’s aim is that of presenting in a comparative manner the way these three subjects of international law see and regulate the issues related to one of the most present right on the agenda, at least in the actual context, namely freedom of thought, conscience and religion.
Being a right initially without frequent practical application in the ECHR jurisprudence, art. 9 of the Convention is nowadays one of the most disputed in the context of building the European society.
At the same time the European Union is taking a series of actions regarding the anti-discriminatory policies and protects by means of Directives this fundamental right.
Member of both Council of Europe and of the EU, lacking the experience of protecting rights, in general, Romania has its own way of seeing and dealing with it.

1. Preliminarii
Aflată sub puternica influenţă a modului în care Franţa a reglementat problema purtării vălului musulman în scolile publice si a reacţiei pe care societatea civilă franceză a avut-o faţă de aceste aspecte, problema libertăţii religioase în România si, în special, a modului în care dimensiunea externă a acesteia poate fi manifestată a primit o formă aparte în celebrele cauze împotriva icoanelor ortodoxe ...

*) Această lucrare a fost finanţată din contractul POSDRU/89/1.5/S/61968, proiect strategic ID 61968 (2009), cofinanţat din Fondul Social European, prin Programul Operaţional Sectorial Dezvoltarea Resurselor Umane 2007-2013.

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Asist. univ. drd. Ana MOCANU-SUCIU
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga”, Sibiu
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bărnuţiu”

Mots-clés: comportement illicite, la responsabilité morale, l'autorité publique, le pouvoir public, garantie, État, garantie, prudence

Conduite illicite de fonctionnaire public en fonction confiée aux agents de acte illégal emploi à la responsabilité patrimoniale des pouvoirs publics Résumé Commettre des actes illégaux constitue une source de responsabilité juridique. Dans les relations impliquant la responsabilité pour les dommages causés à des personnes est nécessaire de distinguer entre les infractions commises par des agents en relation avec les fonctions confiées et tous les faits et pas un tel lien. Dans la jurisprudence française le Conseil d'Etat a adopté de nombreuses décisions qui ont été établis les critères d'appréciation du lien entre la fonction et l'existence d'actes illégaux.
En mesure de consolider les droits fondamentaux et d'accroître la sensibilisation de l'obligation de l'Etat à les respecter ces demandes ont augmenté si maintenant l'autorité publique est exonéré de sa responsabilité que si illégaux commis par le fonctionnaire aurait rien à voir avec la fonction.

a) Fapta ilicită
Temeiul răspunderii juridice îl constituie întotdeauna săvârsirea unei anumite fapte rezultând dintr-o conduită neconformă cu legea sau ilicită a subiectului de drept. Faptul juridic ilicit presupune o conduită sau o atitudine manifestă contrară regulilor de drept si care a încălcat norma prescrisă perturbând desfăsurarea normală a relaţiilor sociale.
Sensul cel mai larg al noţiunii de „conduită” este acela de atitudine rezultată din voinţa si constiinţa obiectivată a omului. Un fapt devine ilicit numai atunci când conduita încalcă normele de drept, obiectul ilicitului juridic constituindu-l tocmai această încălcare **).

*) Cercetări realizate în cadrul Proiectului POSDRU/6/1.5/S/26 cofinanţat din Fondul Social European prin Programul Operaţional Sectorial Dezvoltarea Resurselor Umane 2007-2013.
**) I. Santai, Teoria generală a dreptului, Editura Risoprint, Cluj-Napoca, 2008 p. 159.

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Asist. univ. Laurenţiu SONERIU
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga”, Sibiu
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bărnuţiu”

Keywords: Lisbon Treaty, European Union, reform, institution, decision making procedure

The European Union in light of the alterations brought to the Treaty of Lisbon

The Lisbon Treaty was signed on December 13, 2007 by the 27 EU Member States. Its entry into force on January 1, 2009 has been postponed until the Irish negative vote on December 1, 2009 when the Treaty was ratified by all Member States.
With the entry into force of this Treaty, the EU has acquired legal personality and assumed the powers of the European Community. Therefore, Community law has become the European Union law. Community law is the expression used when referring to the period before the union right of entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon.
The European Union has changed. The number of Member States is now four times higher. Only in the last five years, their number has almost doubled. Europe is facing enormous challenges in this century, including the economic crisis, climate changes, sustainable development, energy security and international cross-border crimes.
The Lisbon Treaty contains, at least theoretically, such changes aimed to raise the quality standard of the work of European institutions by simplifying, streamlining and ensuring greater transparency in EU decision making. Also these changes should lead to the elimination of existing democratic deficit union among citizens about institutions and decision-making procedure by those who till the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon was very complex and overly bureaucratized poorly understood by the ordinary citizen and not only.

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