REZUMAT NR. 1-2 AN 2007

1. Drept privat

IMPLICAŢIILE EUROPENIZÃRII ŞI INTERNAŢIONALIZÃRII DREPTULUI PROCESUAL CIVIL

Prof. univ. dr. Ioan LEŞ
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bãrnuţiu”
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga” din Sibiu

Les incidences de l’européanisation et de l’internationalisation du droit de procédure civile Résumé

Cet étude démarre de la constatation d’existence d’un processus d’européanisation et même d’internationalisation d’un domaine important du droit – la procédure civile – processus déterminé par les tendances plus prononcés de globalisation. L’auteur essaye de déterminer les limites d’un tel processus d’européanisation ou d’internationalisation du droit de procédure civile. Dans le cadre du cet démarche l’auteur se rapporte à l’imprégnation du droit interne avec les réglementations communautaires non seulement dans l’espace européenne, dont la Roumanie fait partie, mais aussi dans le cadre d’autres organismes régionales d’intégration (MERCOSUR, OUA, NAFTA etc.). L’auteur considère que les réglementations adoptées dans les dernières années au niveau de l’Union Européenne justifient le fait qu’on peut parler même d’un droit de procédure communautaire. Son développement n’est pas facile, mais il est possible en tenant compte du caractère extrêmement technique des normes de procédure et de leur vocation vers l’universalité. Toutefois, les réglementations communautaires procédurales d’actualité ne peuvent pas être substituées pour le moment aux codes de procédure civile actuelle dans les états membres de l’Union Européenne. Mais, elles peuvent exercer une influence positive au sujet de processus d’élaboration de nouveaux codes de procédure civile1. Nous croyons que les autorités législatives des états membres ne peuvent pas ignorer les principes fondamentaux des réglementations procédurales communautaires. Une conclusion importante de l’étude est aussi le fait que l’expansion de règles procédurales communautaires, dans l’espace européen, devrait représenter un repère important aussi pour les institutions d’enseignement supérieur de profil juridique, dans le processus d’élaboration des plans et des programmes d’enseignement.

1 Dans l’Amérique Latine les codes-model, adoptés dans des différentes domaines, même dans le domaine de procédure, ont servi comme répertoire ou point de références

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NOILE DISPOZIŢII LEGALE PRIVIND PRELEVAREA ŞI TRANSPLANTUL DE ORGANE, ŢESUTURI ŞI CELULE DE ORIGINE UMANÃ ÎN SCOP TERAPEUTIC

Prof. univ. dr. Ovidiu UNGUREANU
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bãrnuţiu”
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga” din Sibiu

Prélèvement et transplantation d’organes, de tissus et de cellules d’origine humaine à des fins thérapeutiques Résumé L’existence de la personne psysique est conditionée de l’existance du corps humain et de la vie humaine. Le corps fut dès l’époque antique considéré comme une composante de la personne humaine, mais le droit s’en préoccupa de sa protection après deux millenaires. Deux forces puissantes ont, au long de l’histoire, refoulé le corp: l’une d’origine religieuse, l’autre d’origine philosophique. Descartes disait: “Je pense, donc je suis”, d’ou une dissociation entre la personne et le corps ce qui favorise son appartenance au domaine des choses; chose hors du commerce, mais une chose. Ce que provoque la question: la personne serait-elle propriétaire de son corps ou usufruitière? Cette discussion transpose à la personne la terminologie pour le patrimoine et risque de mélange deux ordres de valeur. Le corps humain n’est pas une chose, c’est la personne meme. Il s’agit de l’etre, non de l’avoir. Les perspectives offertes par la science et la médecine modernes ont amené le législateur à réglementer le statut civil du corps humain par la Loi nş 2/1998, abrogée par la Loi nş 95/2006 sur la réforme dans le domaine de la santé (titre VI). Il convient de distinguer le corps humain envisagé comme un ensemble d’organes d’une part, et d’autre part, les éléments (organes, tissus) et le produit (sang, sperme etc.) du corps humain, qui peuvent s’en detacher mais ne peuvent faire l’objet d’un droit patrimonial (art. 144 lit. f). L’auteur fait une analyse de detaille à la Loi nş 95/2006. On traite le prélèvement d’organes, tissus et cellules sur une personne vivant; la loi autorise cettes pratiques mais les subordonnent à des conditions restrictives. Puis, la loi permet qu’après le constat de la mort, des prélèvements d’organes soient effectués, à de fins thérapeutique, sur le cadavre d’une personne qui n’aurait pas fait connaître, de son vivant, son refus d’un tel prélèvement, avec l’accord d’un des membres majeurs de la famille. Mais le prélèvement ne peut avoir lieu contre la volonté exprimée, avant sa mort, par le de cujus et ce refus doit avoir été exprimé en la forme prévue par la loi. Enfin, l’auteur traite le transplantement d’organes, tissus et cellules humaines qui ne peut pas etre effectué contre la volonté du receveur. L’article apporte dans l’attention des lecteurs, des nombreuses problèmes délicates sur le corps humain.

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LUMINI ŞI UMBRE ÎN ZONA CREPUSCULARÃ. REFLECŢII PRIVIND DIAGNOSTICUL LEGAL AL SANCŢIUNII ACTELOR DEBITORULUI ÎN PERIOADA SUSPECTÃ

Prof. univ. dr. Ion TURCU
Drd. Mãdãlina STAN
Drd. Traian LASZLO
Facultatea de Drept
Universitatea „Babeş-Bolyai” Cluj-Napoca

Lights and shadows in the twilight zone. Considerations based on the legal diagnosis of disqualifying the debtor’s act in the twilight zone prior to the state of insolvency Summary The legal diagnosis disqualifying the debtor’s acts is subject to academic controversy. In short, there are three major opinions on the subject: a) It is a common revocatory action. b) It is an action in avoidance of pre-filing transactions (voidable) c) It is a typical revocatory action pertaining to the insolvency procedure. The solution we are advancing is certified and it is based on the comparative analysis of other law systems. The legal mechanism on which articles 75 and 80 are based on meets two ends: a) It reassesses the debtor’s past in the period known as the twilight zone by reconsidering some of his acts as void due to their congenital defects. b) It restores property to the estate for the virtual benefit of all creditors by applying the Latin principle: Nemo liberalis nisi liberatus.

PARTEA I
1. Conceptul juridic al bunei-credinţe şi sorgintea sa eticã Conform dispoziţiilor art. 79 şi art. 80 din Legea nr. 85/2006 administratorul judiciar sau dupã caz, lichidatorul, poate cere judecãtorului-sindic sã anuleze constituirile ori transferurile de drepturi patrimoniale efectuate de debitor cãtre terţ în frauda creditorilor, iar conform art. 85, dacã sunt îndeplinite condiţiile art. 79 şi art. 80 se instituie o prezumţie relativã de fraudã în dauna creditorilor. Conform autorului francez Domat1 principiul bunei-credinţe contractuale, caracterizatã prin fidelitate şi sinceritate, se înlãnţuie direct de principiul etic de iubire şi respect reciproc între oameni.

1 J. Domat, Les lois civiles dans leur ordre naturel, le droit public et legum delectus, 1- re édition 1689, Paris, nouvelle édition, chez Nicolas Gosselin, 1723, ch. V, 1, p.7.

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REFLECŢII ASUPRA VOCABULARULUI JURIDIC

Lect. univ. drd. Cornelia MUNTEANU
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bãrnuţiu”
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga” din Sibiu

Réflexions sur le vocabulaire juridique Résumé Le parallèle entre le droit et langue fait reconnaître qu’il existe entre eux des rapports profonds: tous deux sont des phénomènes sociaux de formation coutumière et ce sont deux systèmes évolutifs: la langue est vivant, le droit aussi. Elles sont aussi des faits culturels. Par cela le langage du droit suscite depuis longtemps un vif intérêt. Il existe, comme langage spécialisé, parce que le droit rend un sens particulier aux certaines mots. La spécificité de ce langage tient du fait qu’il est un langage de groupe, un langage technique et un langage traditionnel. Le langage du droit est d’abord un langage professionnel pour tous ceux qui concourent à la création et à la réalisation du droit; puis il est technique parce qu’il este savant, scientifique, précis; enfin, il est traditionnel parce qu’il est inscrite dans l’histoire. D’autre part, le langage du droit en action est varié selon ses subjets. Le discours législatif, c’est à dire les dispositions légales, est fonctionnel et stylistique. Le style législatif est la manière d’écrire du législateur. A ce point la tradition nous légue un art législatif qu’impose quelques règles essentielles: clarté, brièveté, concision. Le style législatif est neutre; il combine le langage technique avec le langage courant. L’auteur nous propose encore le style jurisdictionnel, le style d’avocat et du notaire et une comparaison entre le style juridique et le style littéraire. Cette étude propose une autre régard sur le droit à travers son vocabulaire, son langage et son style, avec l’espérance que la justice pouvais gagner quelque chose par la justesse des mots.

1. Consideraţii generale
Dreptul apare în limbã mai devreme decât ne-am aştepta. În adevãr, el existã deja prin cuvinte şi proverbe; fiecare dobândeşte prin educaţie experienţa unor fenomene juridice rudimentare. Socializarea copilului trece, în parte, printr-o juridicizare1. Atât dreptul cât şi limba sunt fenomene sociale, de sorginte

1 J. Carbonnier, Droit civil. Introduction, 25-e édition refondue, PUF, Paris, 1997, p. 54. Nu lipsesc, desigur, mijloacele pentru ca dreptul sã se facã cunoscut. “Mass-media este astãzi la dispoziţia lui, amplã şi percutantã, dar cu traducãtori infideli (…); ea are aerul cã vorbeşte în numele ştiinţei” (Ibidem).

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ACŢIUNEA ÎN GRÃNIŢUIRE

Lector univ. dr. Gheorghe COMÃNIŢÃ
Studentã Iulia COMÃNIŢÃ
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bãrnuţiu”
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga” din Sibiu

The bordering action Summary The settlement of the Civil Code referring to bordering, thou over one hundred years old, is as actual today as it was in the past, not only because it represents an efficient way of protecting the right of property, but because it still rises enough problems jurisprudence. This was the reason why, in this article, we have tried to systemize some of the issues referring to bordering, and also to give an answer to some practical aspects concerning some disputed matters, such as the conditions of bordering, the bearers of the bordering action, the consequences of a passed ruling concerning the bordering action and so on. In order to succeed in our approach, we have defined bordering, revealing its character as a juridical action as well as a material one. We have pointed out the types of bordering, emphasizing the distinction between them, particularly between the conventional bordering and the judicial bordering. We have systemized the substantial conditions of bordering and less but not least we revealed our point of view over the judicial nature of the bordering action. Even thou we have approached procedural issues; we proposed a presentation centered much more on material law aspects of the bordering action. In the end we presented a few aspects referring to the costs of bordering and their juridical meanings and also to the legal costs in the bordering action, knowing the fact that in the judicial practice it has never been given a unitary interpretation to the legal provision concerning the fact that “the costs of bordering will be supported in equal share”.

1. Definire şi consideraţii generale
Reglementarea grãniţuirii o gãsim într-o parte extrem de sumarã a Codului civil, respectiv în dispoziţiile art. 584, care într-un mod foarte concis aratã cã „orice proprietar poate obliga pe vecinul sãu, la grãniţuirea proprietãţii lipite de a sa; cheltuielile grãniţuirii vor fi suportate pe jumãtate”. Aceasta fiind întreaga reglementare cu privire la grãniţuire, ne-am propus o sistematizare a problemelor pe care le ridicã ...

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ACTUALITATEA PROBLEMATICII DAUNELOR MORALE ÎN CONTEXTUL LEGISLAŢIEI, DOCTRINEI ŞI JURISPRUDENŢEI ACTUALE

Conf. univ. dr. Ioan SABÃU-POP
Universitatea „Petru Maior” Târgu-Mureş
Avocat, Baroul Târgu-Mureş

The present problems of moral prejudice within the current legislation, doctrine and jurisprudence Summary The issue of moral prejudice has been revived within the judicial doctrine and especially after the events from December, 1989. This paper makes a research on the judicial liability regarding the moral prejudicies which are now accepted by the Romanian Civil Law. The author outlines several ideas in his analysis of civil aquilian responsibility which is made by admitting the money equivalance to the moral prejudices. The social need for making responsible the authors of illicit facts imposes the admitance of offering moral prejudices to which the victims of an illicit facts are entitled. This analysis underlines the evolution of the concept “moral prejudice”, especially the importance given to it by the pressure of the society after the reanalysis of judicial circuit and the tendency of the Romanian Law State to settle down its rules. There is also remarkable the contribution of jurisprudence to the outlining of this concept and to the solving of some situations which became principles to be applied for other solutions.

1. Contextul problematic al temei
Este unanim recunoscut în doctrina juridicã faptul cã problematica daunelor morale a revenit în actualitate dupã evenimentele din decembrie 1989. Jurisprudenţa, cu prudenţa şi controversa generatã de acest fenomen în societatea româneascã, a început sã recunoascã echivalarea materialã a daunelor morale, alãturi de repararea prin mijloace specifice nepatrimoniale. Repararea daunelor morale constituie o componentã importantã a rãspunderii civile şi în special, în cadrul rãspunderii civile delictuale şi corespunde unor necesitãţi sociale.

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REFLECŢII PRIVIND ELEMENTUL DE EXTRANEITATE ŞI RAPORTURILE DE DREPT INTERNAŢIONAL PRIVAT

Conf. univ. dr. Cãlina JUGASTRU
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bãrnuţiu”
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga” din Sibiu

Réflexions sur l’élément d’extranéité et les rapports de droit international privé Résumé L’élément d’extranéité est le critérium qui fait la différence entre les rapports de droit international privé et tous les autres rapports de droit privé. Il s’agit d’un fait juridique d’attachement qui concerne les éléments de la structure du rapport juridique (sujets, contenu, objet) et qui a l’aptitude de générer les conflits de lois et les conflits de jurisdiction. La présence de l’élément d’extranéité pose le problème de la jurisdiction compétente et de la loi applicable (lois nationales ou normes uniformes). La notion d’élément d’extranéité présente des différences par rapport aux faits juridiques matériels. L’élément d’extranéité représente une catégorie spéciale de faits juridiques d’attachement, avec des traits caractéristiques propres: il n’est pas un élément de la structure du rapport de droit international privé; on peut le caractériser comme élément étranger par rapport à un système législatif déterminé; il distingue les relations nées entre particuliers, dans la vie juridique internationale, des autre relations de droit privé. Le domain des rapports juridiques de droit international privé englobe tous les relations de droit civil, procédure civile, commercial, travail et tous les autres rapports avec élément d’extranéité. Les rapports de droit public n’entrent pas dans la sphère du droit international privé, mais, dans certains cas, il faut prendre en considération la loi étrangère dans les litiges de droit public. Autrement dit, il faut résoudre les questions préalables, ayant en vue la loi étrangère comme condition d’application de lex fori.

Elementul de extraneitate
Definiţia elementului de extraneitate Recunoscut unanim drept criteriu care distinge raporturile de drept internaţional privat de alte raporturi juridice de drept privat, elementul de extraneitate are o fizionomie complexã şi o semnificaţie aparte în contextul dreptului internaţional privat.

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MUNCÃ EGALÃ SAU DE VALOARE EGALÃ, PLATÃ EGALÃ

Asist. univ. drd. Monica GHEORGHE
Facultatea de Drept “Simion Bãrnuţiu”
Universitatea “Lucian Blaga” din Sibiu

Equal work or equal in valor, equal payment Summary Through the monitoring reports of Romania by the Commission of European Committee, Romania was imposed, among others, the obligation to ensure the equal treatment between women and men, by setting in concordance the internal directions to those contained by the Council Direction 75/117/CEE concerning the harmonization of the legislation from the member states regarding the implementation of the principle of equal remuneration for work of equal valor. In this matter, the Romanian legislator modified the content of article 6 paragraph 221 from the Work Code and introduced a new paragraph 3 through the Governmental Emergency Decree no. 55/2006 that provides: “For equal work or equal in valor it is forbidden any discrimination based on sex criteria regarding all the elements and conditions of remuneration’ The principle of public order of equal work or equal in valor equal payment frames I the principle of work right concerning the equality of treatment for all the employees and employers (art.5 paragraph 1 from the Work Code), being a component of this one, but equally a principle specific to the payment system, on establishing and according the salaries being forbidden, according to the article 154 paragraph 3 from the Work Code, any discrimination. The insurance of equal treatment of the employees and employers does not mean uniformity, not taking into consideration the particularities, some specific concrete requirements. The legislator or the person required to apply the law- employee or employer, can take into account certain particularities that impose, necessarily and reasonably, differential treatments.

Tratatul C.E.E. instituie în art. 119 principiul plãţii egale pentru muncã egalã între bãrbaţi şi femei, plata, în înţelesul acestui articol, reprezentând “salariul minim sau obişnuit, fie în numerar, fie în bunuri, pe care lucrãtorul îl primeşte, direct sau indirect, pentru munca sa de la angajatorul sãu”. Plata egalã, fãrã discriminare bazatã pe sex, înseamnã, în egalã mãsurã: 1. cã acea platã pentru aceeaşi muncã în unitãţi de produse va fi calculatã pe baza aceleiaşi unitãţi de mãsurã; 2. cã plata pentru munca în unitatea de timp va fi aceeaşi pentru aceeaşi activitate.

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PROMISIUNEA DE PORTE-FORT ŞI ARTICOLUL 973 DIN CODUL CIVIL ROMÂN (I)

Lector univ. drd. Adrian CIRCA
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bãrnuţiu”
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga” din Sibiu

Porte fort agreement and Article 973 of the Romanian Civil Code (I)
Summary

The porte-fort promise represents an apparent exception to the principle of relativity of the conventions’ effects (res inter alios). Indeed, the porte-forte promise gives value to an agreement that leaves the impression of interference within the legal sphere of another person stranger to the agreement. The promisor will assume such a commitment due to the family or friendship relationships with the third party; otherwise, in the absence of such connections, the convention rests a mere fragile and hazarded construction. In what concerns its validity, the portefort convention is valid as soon as the agreement between the creditor and the promisor is ascertained. The third party’s decision does not represent a condition of validity of the porte-fort promise. However, we believe that the efficiency of the legal procedure entitled porte-fort cannot be analyzed only at the static moment, of establishing the basic convention (essential); the process is dynamic, in evolution, when the manifestation of the third party’s will is expected. Only in the event of an analysis also of its dynamic aspects, does the porte-fort promise reveal its reports with the principle of relativity of conventions.

Noţiune
Convenţia de porte-fort se prezintã ca o instituţie nenumitã, în sensul cã nu este reglementatã de Codul civil. În mod tradiţional, aceastã convenţie este cunoscutã sub denumirea de promisiunea pentru altul sau promisiunea faptei altuia, fiind amintitã ca o excepţie aparentã de la principiul relativitãţii convenţiilor (res inter alios acta). Promisiunea pentru altul este definitã1 ca fiind acea convenţie prin care promitentul se obligã sã convingã pe altã persoanã sã încheie un act (convenţia de porte-fort), sau se obligã a-l convinge pe altul sã ratifice un act, încheiat în numele lui fãrã nicio putere de a-l reprezenta.

1 O. Ungureanu, Drept civil. Introducere, ediţia a 8-a, Editura C.H. Beck, Bucureşti, 2007, p. 232.

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DESPRE FAMILIE ŞI DREPTUL LA VIAŢÃ DE FAMILIE ÎN TEMEIUL ART. 8 DIN CONVENŢIA EUROPEANÃ A DREPTURILOR OMULUI ŞI A DREPTULUI INTERN

Asist. univ. drd. Andreea DRÃGHICI
Asist. univ. dr. Daniela IANCU
Facultatea de Ştiinţe Economice,
Juridice şi Administrative
Universitatea din Piteşti

Quelques considérations sur la famille et le droit à la vie en conformité avec l’art. 8 de la Convention Européenne des Droits de l’Homme et le droit interne Résumé Le droit à la vie privée et de famille est l’un des droits fondamentaux de l’homme, consacré par l’art. 8 de la Convention Européenne pour protection des droits de l’homme et des libertés fondamentales. L’objet du présent article est aussi l’analyse du contenu de la notion de «vie de famille», tel qu’il résulte des dispositions de l’art. 8 de la CEDO et des décisions de la Cour Européenne des Droits de l’Homme, que la protection en concret du droit à la vie de famille et la sanction des ingérences dans l’exercice de ce droit fondamental. Aussi, la relation parents – enfants - Etat dans la lumière de l’art. 8 de la CEDO et de la législation interne fait l’objet de notre analyse. La Roumanie a démontré par l’adoption de la Loi nş 272/2004 concernant la protection et la promotion des droits de l’enfant qu’elle est sensible à la jurisprudence CEDH, fait qui résulte des réglementations concernant les mesures de protection spéciale de l’enfant privé temporairement ou permanent de la protection paternelle. Aussi, le doit du parent de consentir à l’adoption de son enfant représente une condition de fond pour l’autorisation de l’adoption. Conformément à la Loi no. 272/2004, le parent garde ce droit même s’il a été déchu de ses doits paternels.

1. Despre familie şi conceptul de “viaţã de familie” Consacrat în art.8 din Convenţia europeanã pentru apãrarea drepturilor omului şi a libertãţilor fundamentale1, dreptul la viaţã privatã şi de familie constituie unul dintre drepturile fundamentale ale omului, care este proteguit şi în dreptul intern, el având rang constituţional.

1 Ratificatã de România prin Legea nr.30/1994, publicatã în M. Of. nr. 135 din 31 mai 1994.

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NOUL ÎNŢELES AL NOŢIUNII DE DOMICILIU COMUN AL SOŢILOR UTILIZATÃ DE ART. 20 AL LEGII NR.105/1992 ÎN CONTEXTUL ADERÃRII ROMÂNIEI LA UNIUNEA EUROPEANÃ

Lect. univ. drd. Nadia Cerasela DARIESCU
Facultatea de Drept
Universitatea „Petre Andrei”, Iaşi
Lect. univ. dr. Cosmin DARIESCU
Facultatea de Drept
Universitatea „Al.I. Cuza”, Iaşi

The new meaning of the concept of “the common domicile of the spouses” (used in Article 20 of Law no. 105 of 1992) in the context of Romania’s E. U. accession Summary According to Article 20 paragraph 1 of Law no. 105 of 1992 on the Settlement of the Private International Law Relations, the personal and patrimonial relations between spouses are subjected to the common national law and if they have different citizenships, they are subjected to the law of their common domicile. According to the second paragraph of Article 20, the common national law or the law of the common domicile of the spouses continue to regulate the effects of the marriage, even if one of them changes, as the case may be, citizenship or domicile. The Romanian concept of domicile can be defined according to the provisions of Decree no. 31 of 1954 concerning the natural and moral persons, Emergency Ordinance of the Government no. 97 of 2005 on the record, domicile, residence and the identity papers of the Romanian citizens (modified and approved by Law no. 290 of 2005). The foreigners’ domicile must comply with the relevant provisions of Emergency Ordinance of the Government no. 194 of 2002 on the condition of foreigners in Romania (consolidated version) as well as with the rules of Emergency Ordinance of the Government no. 102 of 2005 on the free movement on the Romanian territory of the citizens of the member states of the European Union and of the European Economic Space. Summarizing all the above mentioned provisions, we can define the common domicile of the spouses as the main residence shared by the spouses inside the Romanian borders or outside. If one or both of the spouses is/ are foreigners and claims/claim a common domicile on the Romanian soil, Romanian authorities will have to verify, first, if the foreign spouse or spouses has/have obtained the right of permanent residence in Romania from the Romanian Authority for Foreigners. Only in this case their permanent residence can be defined as a common domicile (in the Romania Law). Beginning with January 1, 2007 (when Romania acceded to the European Union), the citizens of the member states of the E.U. and of the European Economic

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PRINCIPIILE GENERALE ALE DREPTULUI EUROPEAN AL CONCURENŢEI

Lect. univ. dr. Cãlin M. COSTIN
Facultatea de Drept Cluj-Napoca
Universitatea Creştinã “Dimitrie Cantemir”

1. Impactul dreptului comunitar asupra dreptului concurenţei Dreptul concurenţei este supus concomitent reglementãrilor de drept comunitar în materie, dar şi reglementãrilor de drept naţional incidente. De aceea, analiza principiilor dreptului concurenţei nu poate face abstracţie de principiile fundamentale ale dreptului comunitar. Doctrina juridicã de autoritate1 apreciazã cã pot fi reţinute trei principii fundamentale ale dreptului comunitar, şi anume:

1 M. Malaurie-Vignal, Droit de la concurrence, 2-e édition, Dalloz, Paris, 2003, p.9.

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LIBERTATEA ALEGERII REGIMULUI MATRIMONIAL ÎN VIZIUNEA PROIECTULUI DE COD CIVIL

Lect. univ. drd. Adrian Alexandru BANCIU
Universitatea Creştinã “Dimitrie Cantemir”
Cluj-Napoca
Facultatea de Drept

The freedom of choosing the matrimonial regime according to the Bill of Civil Code Summary Leaving aside the compulsory character of the legal matrimonial regime, the legislator of the future Civil Code returned to the idea of the matrimonial conventions, by means of which the couples are allowed to choose by themselves their patrimonial arrangements in order to steer clear of possible differences which in the future may jeopardize the marriage itself. However, the spouses’ option is limited to selecting one of the three alternative matrimonial regimes imperatively regulated by the legislator: legal community, separate maintenance and conventional community, being compelled afterwards to adhere to their choice, under the threat of the absolute invalidity. According to the provisions of the Bill of Civil Code, the couple’s freedom to settle their patrimonial relationships can, however, be placed within the conventional community regime, when the matrimonial convention departs from the provisions regarding the legal community regime, following the specific conditions and limits set forth for this type of matrimonial regime. The freedom of choosing the matrimonial regime established by the Bill in Article 242, as it was quoted, underlines the fact that the regulation of the couple’s patrimonial relationships, as we can see, is from now on flexible and adjustable to their will, unlike their personal extra-patrimonial ones, which can only be settled by the legislator by imperative norms that envisage the way in which the State stipulates marriage and its effects. Still, not even the patrimonial freedom of the spouses is quite absolute, but to a certain extend it is enclosed by the obligation set by the legislator to observe a set of ground rules, no matter the choice made by the couple in favor of one or another of the matrimonial regimes. Article 242 paragraph 2 of the Bill of Civil Code sets forth that: “Regardless of the chosen matrimonial regime, there can be no departure from the provisions of the current section, unless the law stipulates otherwise”. Thus, the enforcement of the principle found in paragraph 1 is enclosed by the compulsoriness of observing the general provisions of the first section. This section consists of a totality of fundamental rules which apply to all marriages, despite the matrimonial regime which they will be submitted to, by their conventional will or in the absence of a convention, by the matrimonial regime.

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SOCIETATEA COMERCIALÃ EUROPEANÃ, MIJLOC CE ASIGURÃ LIBERA CIRCULAŢIE A CAPITALURILOR, BUNURILOR ŞI PERSOANELOR PE PIAŢA UNICÃ

Asist. univ. drd. Andreea TÂRŞIA
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bãrnuţiu”
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga” din Sibiu

The European Trade Company, Means of ensuring the free circulation of capitals, goods and persons on the unique market Summary Being considered an all important instrument to the achievement of the unique market, fact pointed out in the White Book regarding the accomplishment of the internal market1 (document elaborated in1985) the regularization of the European trade company by Council Regulation (E.C.) nr. 2157/2001 of October the 8th 2001 represents the juridical mean which allows the exercise of commerce and the promotion of the cooperation between the economic operators from different states of the European Union by eliminating the juridical barriers that the national laws applicable to trade companies imply.

Statutul societãţii europene (S.E.) este reglementat prin Regulamentul Consiliului (C.E.) nr. 2157/2001 din 8 octombrie 2001, scopul înfiinţãrii acesteia reprezentându-l, aşa cum rezultã din preambulul sãu: „..înlãturarea barierelor din calea comerţului şi adaptarea structurilor de producţie la dimensiunea Comunitãţii. În acest scop, este esenţial ca întreprinderile a cãror activitate nu este limitatã la satisfacerea nevoilor pur locale sã poatã concepe şi întreprinde reorganizarea activitãţii lor la scarã comunitarã”. Scopul urmãrit prin adoptarea Regulamentului este acela de a introduce un nou instrument societar capabil de a permite constituirea şi gestiunea unei societãţi de dimensiuni europene, fãrã obstacolele datorate disparitãţilor dintre legislaţiile naţionale aplicabile societãţilor comerciale, dar şi dintre limitele teritoriale de aplicare a acestora. Odatã ce îşi produce efectele şi Directiva nr. 2001/86/CE din 8 octombrie 2001 pentru completarea statutului Societãţii europene în ceea ce priveşte implicarea angajaţilor, complementarã Regulamentului, societãţile naţionale vor fi libere sã aleagã 1 The internal market has the significance of a market of the European Union’s dimension, governed by unique rules established at community level, characterized by the existence of the four freedoms: „free circulation of goods, persons, services and capitals”.

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EVALUAREA DAUNELOR-INTERESE ÎN MATERIE COMERCIALÃ

Lector univ. drd. Maria DUMITRU
Universitatea „Petre Andrei” Iaşi
Facultatea de Drept

The assessment of indemnifications within the commercial field Summary The civil code establish in the obligations field the principle according to which the creditor is always entitled to benefit from the proper fulfilmant of an obligation, or otherwise he is entitled to damages. If the principle has stayed the same, it is in the institution of “indemnifications” that one best notices the influence of the evolution of the economic-social phenomenon on the obligations field. We reckon it is useful and necessary to describe the institution of damages as it is today, due to numerous legislation changes, doctrine-related controversies and last but not least to the jurisprudence solutions that lack unity.

De-a lungul timpului teoria generalã a obligaţiilor s-a schimbat puţin doar în aparenţã, evoluţia – ca lege fundamentalã a dreptului – punându-şi amprenta şi în aceastã materie, din necesitatea de a adapta regula de drept realitãţilor sociale. Dacã principiile generale ce guverneazã obligaţiile se caracterizeazã printr-o relativã stabilitate, în schimb la nivelul unor instituţii importante din cadrul acestora – cum este şi cazul rãspunderii civile – modificãrile sunt substanţiale şi uşor de sesizat. Codul civil consacrã în aceastã materie regula potrivit cãreia întotdeauna creditorul are dreptul de a primi îndeplinirea exactã a obligaţiei, în caz contrar având dreptul la daune. Dacã principiul a rãmas acelaşi, nicãieri altundeva decât în cadrul instituţiei „dezdãunãrilor” nu poate fi observatã cu mai multã claritate influenţa pe care evoluţia fenomenului economico-social a exercitat-o asupra materiei obligaţiilor. Motivat de numeroasele modificãri legislative, de controversele doctrinare şi nu în ultimul rând de soluţiile jurisprudenţiale neunitare din aceastã materie considerãm utilã şi necesarã prezentarea modalitãţilor de stabilire a daunelor în materie comercialã. Evaluarea daunelor în cazul neexecutãrii obligaţiilor comerciale se poate realiza judiciar, convenţional şi legal. Deoarece determinarea acestora se face, în principiu, cu respectarea regulilor întâlnite în materia obligaţiilor civile, în cele ce urmeazã ne vom limita doar la a prezenta particularitãţile stabilirii daunelor în materie comercialã.

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2. Drept public

UNELE CONSIDERAŢII PRIVIND JUSTIŢIA RESTAURATIVÃ

Conf. univ. dr. Marcel Ioan RUSU
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bãrnuţiu”
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga” din Sibiu

Some Considerations on Restorative Justice Summary Restorative justice has proper regulations, totally different from those of retributive justice. Restorative justice stands for an alternative in the sanction of the delinquency phenomenon by means of custodial sentences. Restorative justice focuses on the triad offender – victim – collectivity. It achieves the involvement of all persons offended by commitment of the crime (victim – offender – community) by giving them the possibility to meet and communicate one with the other, in view of finding solutions, on one side, for repairing the prejudice produced and, on the other side, for achieving the offenders’ social reinsertion. The first attempts in our country are dated from the year 2002 when the mediation centers form Bucharest and Craiova were made up.

Preambul Justiţia este unul din pilonii de bazã care susţine orice societate democraticã dar, în acelaşi timp, autoritatea judecãtoreascã are ca misiune principalã servirea intereselor membrilor societãţii. Societatea care are încredere în sistemul sãu judiciar, în eficacitatea normei juridice şi în aplicarea principiului egalitãţii în faţa legii este o societate puternicã şi prosperã. Spre deosebire de alte state dezvoltate economic în care existã instituţii bine consolidate, mari resurse materiale şi financiare, baze logistice şi strategii de acţiune operaţionalã, România se confruntã cu o situaţie dificilã, în care restructurarea instituţionalã şi penuria de resurse materiale sau umane fac deosebit de dificile intervenţiile în materie de prevenirea fenomenului infracţional.

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EXAMINAREA UNOR FALSURI FILATELICE

Lector univ. dr. Ion POIANÃ
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bãrnuţiu”
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga” din Sibiu

Examination of Some Types of Philatelic Forgeries Summary This article is composed out of three sections. Analysis of forged certificates of philatelic expertise is aimed at studying marks of die stamping techniques and certificates of philatelic expertise. Examination of other types of traces detected in the process of studying postage stamps reveal types of traces, such as: fingerprints left on the adhesive in the process of forgery will be further examined with the purpose of identifying the forger; traces of saliva on the envelope adhesive. By forensic examination, the smallest particles of organic material found on the adhesive tape can reveal the D.N.A. of the person whose traces of saliva were found on the envelope; marks left by the instruments used to create cut-outs, perforations and cuts. By tracking examination, these marks will help identify the characteristics of the mark-making object and eventually they will lead to identification of the object itself. Anachronisms as evidence of forgery respond to the claim that a philatelic piece dates from a certain period or was part of the mail circuit during a certain period. This claim can be refuted by identifying anachronisms in many elements of a philatelic item: paper, writing materials, writing tools, spelling, type of script, characteristics of handwritten, printed or typewritten letters, postage stamp, overprint, post-mark etc. The results of the criminalistical examinations are materialised in an explanatory and illustrative manner in the text.

1. Examinarea atestatelor de expertizã filatelicã falsificate Examinarea atestatelor de expertizã filatelicã falsificate are ca obiect studierea urmelor de poanson şi a documentului ca atare. Urmele de tuş imprimate prin aplicarea poansoanelor vor fi examinate prin aceleaşi metode ca şi în cazul examinãrii tuşului impresiunilor de ştampilã. În ceea ce priveşte certificatul de expertizã, se va proceda la o examinare criminalisticã complexã vizând atât marca poştalã, cât şi certificatul de expertizã (potrivit metodologiei examinãrii documentelor). S-au semnalat, în practicã, cazuri de înlocuire a mãrcii poştale pentru care s-a eliberat certificatul, ipoteza impunând verificarea concordanţei caracteristicilor mãrcii poştale cu datele înscrise în atestat.

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PROCEDURA ÎNTREBÃRII PRELIMINARE ÎN REGLEMENTAREA ART.234 AL TRATATULUI PRIVIND COMUNITATEA EUROPEANÃ

Conf. univ. dr. Alexandrina ZAHARIA
Universitatea „Danubius” Galaţi
Facultatea de Drept

Summary

1. Precizãri prealabile Recent, şi anume, la 9 mai 2007 s-au împlinit 57 de ani de când a fost semnat actul politic iniţiat de Robert Schuman, Ministrul Afacerilor Externe al Franţei, privind înfiinţarea Comunitãţii Europene a Cãrbunelui şi Oţelului, precursoarea Uniunii Europene de astãzi. Iniţial, Comunitatea Europeanã a avut în vedere realizarea unei pieţe comune între statele membre, ca mai apoi, urmare extinderii în continentul

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ROLUL JUDECÃTORULUI NAŢIONAL ÎN APLICAREA DREPTULUI SUPRANAŢIONAL
– DE LA POZITIVISM LA ECHITATE –

Lector univ. dr. Andreea TABACU
Facultatea de Ştiinţe Economice, Juridice şi Administrative
Universitatea din Piteşti
Judecãtor, Tribunalul Argeş

Le rôle du juge national dans la mise en pratique du droit supranational - du positivisme à l’équité - Résumé La pratique judiciaire interne non uniforme, les condamnations de l’État romain devant les instances internationales et les normes juridiques internes non accordées aux règles de droit communautaire représentent des témoignages, car le juge national se confronte à une série de difficultés en vue de la mise en pratique du droit supranational. En ce qui concerne cette mise en pratique, le juge interne dispose d’une série d’attributions et obligations, déterminées, principalement, par la compréhension et le sens de la notion de “droit applicable”. Qu’est-ce que cette catégorie inclut-elle? Les lois internes, les règlements européens, la jurisprudence des cours européennes, tout cela ou seulement une partie ? La réponse a été conférée à plusieurs occasions, surtout dans la jurisprudence de la Cour européenne des Droits de l’Homme et dans la jurisprudence de la Cour Européenne de Justice. De cette manière, si le contenu de la notion de “droit applicable” n’implique aucun doute, car il s’agit d’un sémantisme tout à fait élucidé, en ce qui concerne la mise en pratique correcte du droit, on rencontre et on perpétue une série d’inconvénients dont la solution ne semble pas se concrétiser à l’avenir. Le droit applicable pour le juge romain, dirigé conformément aux règles du positivisme de Kelsin et formé par rapport à la mise en pratique de la loi écrite, varie à présent en fonction du domaine auquel il s’adresse. Dans la sphère d’activité du droit privé, surtout en ce qui concerne la protection de la propriété et les mesures de réparation à l’égard du droit de propriété, l’effet de la jurisprudence de la Cour européenne des Droits de l’Homme attire des conséquences importantes sur la notion de droit applicable. Dans ce domaine, les lois internes sont parfois contredites dans les interprétations conférées par la Cour européenne et, en conséquence, le juge national est obligé à mettre en pratique le droit contrairement à la loi interne. Dans le cas où la situation pratique déduite au jugement serait encadrée dans la sphère du droit communautaire, dans les domaines où celui-ci produit des conséquences, le juge national a même la possibilité de laisser non appliquées les règlements prévus par les droit interne, car ceux-ci sont en

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CÂTEVA PROBLEME PRIVIND SISTEMUL DREPTULUI

Lector univ. dr. Corina-Cristina BUZDUGAN
Universitatea Creştinã “Dimitrie Cantemir” Cluj-Napoca
Facultatea de Drept

A few issues about the law system Summary One of the controversial issues concerning legal literature is the issue of the legal system. There have been numerous discussions concerning the way in which differences between some branches of the law should be outlined and especially concerning the criteria to be taken into account when establishing such differences. Most of the authors agree that there are mainly two criteria that have to underlie the difference between two branches of law: a). the object of the legal regulation b). the method regulation This paper analyses the two criteria , showing that they a have a certain degree of relativity in the sense that the object of legal regulation is the common element of more branches of law , the method is not always the crucial element for distinguishing one branch of law from the other. As a matter of fact, the whole legal system is subject to this degree of relativity.

Una dintre problemele care au dat naştere la vii discuţii în literatura juridicã este şi problema sistemului dreptului. Dacã, în ce priveşte noţiunea propriu-zisã a sistemului de drept nu au existat prea multe controverse, fiind aproape unanim admis cã sistemul de drept reprezintã unitatea dreptului şi diviziunea lui în ramuri şi instituţii juridice, discuţii numeroase au avut loc cu privire la delimitarea unor ramuri de drept de altele, şi în special asupra criteriilor ce trebuie avute în vedere atunci când se pune problema delimitãrii acestora. O mare parte a autorilor sunt de acord cã, criteriile ce trebuie sã stea la baza delimitãrii unei ramuri de drept de alta sunt în special douã: a.) obiectul reglementãrii juridice; b.) metoda reglementãrii.

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ACTUALITATEA ÎN COMUNICAŢIILE ELECTRONICE LA RÉVISION DU « PAQUET TÉLÉCOM »

Philippe ACHILLÉAS
Directeur de l’Institut du Droit de l’Espace
et des Télécommunications (IDEST)
et du Master spécialité Droit des activités
spatiales et des communications électroniques
(Faculté Jean Monnet, Université Paris Sud)

Revue 2006 : What Stakes for the Revision of the Regulation of the European Framework of the Telecoms ?
Summary

In response to the convergence of technologies and the need for horizontal regulation of all infrastructures, the European institutions have adopted the 2002 new telecommunication regulatory framework in order to make the electronic communications sector more competitive. Although this framework works well, changes are needed in order to maintain its effectiveness. The future revised regulatory framework for electronic communications will have to take account of technological developments on the market and respond to the needs of the sector over the next ten years. The Commission proposes to make changes in two main areas: the management of the radio spectrum and the market review procedure. Other changes are also planned to consolidate the internal market, strengthen consumer and user interests, improve security and remove outdated provisions. The new texts will be adopted between 2007 and 2009. They will enter into force between 2010 and 2012. Le Livre vert sur le développement du marché commun des services et des équipements de télécommunications du 30 juillet 19871 a ouvert le débat sur la libéralisation du secteur des télécommunications dans le but de l’adapter aux exigences d’un marché européen unique. Prenant en compte les besoins du marché, les implications sociales et les évolutions techniques, le document propose deux axes pour la future politique européenne des télécommunications : la libéralisation et l’harmonisation. Il confirme par ailleurs l’application du droit de la concurrence au secteur des télécommunications. Le 1er janvier 1998, le marché européen des équipements, des infrastructures et des services de télécommunications a été totalement ouvert à la concurrence2. Pour en arriver là, les institutions 1 COM (1987) 290. 2 L’Espagne, la Grèce, l’Irlande et le Portugal ont bénéficié d’une période de transition supplémentaire de cinq ans.

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VOIX SUR IP: RÉGULATION TRADITIONNELLE POUR UNE NOUVELLE TECHNOLOGIE OU NOUVELLE APPROCHE POUR LA TÉLÉPHONIE HAUT DÉBIT?

Thibault VERBIEST
Avocat aux barreaux de Paris et de Bruxelles
Associé Cabinet ULYS
Chargé d’enseignement á l’Université
Paris I Sorbonne et Paris II Panthéon-Assas

Voice over IP: Old regulation for new technology or new approach of Broadband telephony? Summary The Voice over IP (“VoIP”) – and its natural expansion, the Voice over Broadband (“VoB”) – has made part of the electronic communication world for several years. No need to say that it was a true revolution. For example, “Skype”, the famous internet phone service, allows making phone calls between users for free. Currently, VoIP is also used to call from and to fixed terminals, through use of standard phone numbers attributed to VoIP users. Several operators propose telephony services based on the VoIP technology, with competitive tariffs. The speech will point out the main issues raised by the VoIP and will try to present the state of European regulation in this field and in some Member States. Thibault Verbiest will present the different European and national approaches that have been adopted in order to assess whether the current regulatory framework is adapted to such a revolutionary technology. I. Introduction Traditionnellement, les services de téléphonie vocale fixe étaient offerts par les opérateurs de télécommunication par le biais de réseau téléphonique public commuté (« RTPC »)1. Ce réseau, habituellement détenu par les opérateurs historiques, permet d’atteindre l’utilisateur final par le biais de sa boucle locale. 1 Les téléphones étaient habituellement reliés au Public Switched Telephone Network (« PSTN »).

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GESTION DES FRÉQUENCES RADIOÉLECTRIQUES

Bernard THÉRY
Responsable des affaires juridiques
Agence Nationale des Fréquences

Radio frequency spectrum management
Summary

Radio spectrum, as a natural resource, belongs to humanity property and is a public good that does not respect States frontiers. Radio spectrum management is more than a European affair, since its conditions of use are firstly defined during World Radio Conference organised by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU). The European Commission wishes the harmonisation of frequency use thanks to the expertise of the Conférence européenne des postes et télécommunications (CEPT), but each Member State is still free to define the user of the frequencies at national level. However radio spectrum remains a scarce resource the use of which must be managed as efficiently as possible. Frequencies needs grow with the development of new technologies. The implementation of a “secondary spectrum market” and the discussions concerning the “digital dividend”, are relevant examples of the new European spectrum management policy. L’utilisation du spectre des fréquences radioélectriques constitue un enjeu économique considérable tant au niveau mondial, européen que national. La demande en fréquences au cours des dernières années a augmenté très rapidement en raison du développement de technologies nouvelles telles que la radiotéléphonie dans le secteur des télécommunications, la radio et la télévision numérique dans le domaine de l’audiovisuel, qui sont venues s’ajouter aux utilisations classiques tels que les domaines du radiomaritime et de l’aéronautique. Les effets de la libéralisation des marchés ainsi que l’abaissement du prix des équipements et leur miniaturisation jouent également un rôle important dans le formidable essor que connaît la demande de fréquences. L’utilisation par chaque Etat des fréquences radioélectriques fait partie de son domaine de souveraineté. Mais cette souveraineté ne peut s’exercer au détriment des autres Etats alors que la propagation des ondes ne connaît pas les frontières, couvrant parfois des zones très importantes de la Terre, parfois le monde entier.

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TRÈS HAUT DÉBIT ET PROSPECTIVE RÉGLEMENTAIRE QUEL MODÈLE POUR LA RÉGULATION DES RÉSEAUX DE NOUVELLE GÉNÉRATION (NGN)?

Frédéric PÉRON
Legal Manager Electronic Business Group (EBG)

The Very High Flow and Regulatory Perspective.
What Model for the Regulation of the NGN? Summary Very high speed broadband: you can’t see the wood for the trees. Indeed, whatever the actual output, it only will go increasingly, following the pattern of Moore’s famous law applying to processors. By very high speed we mean the profound transition currently taking place within communication networks. The old PSTN progressively moves away to leave the space for new generation networks (NGN). These new networks will allow offering multimedia services from any kind of access network (fibre, WiMax, satellite). The migration towards NGNs seems inevitable because of the need for, on the one hand, voice/data/image convergence and, on the other hand, fixed mobile convergence. Most players in France, Europe and most parts of the world have started the migration. Its impact needs to be analyzed and anticipated. The new access technologies (such as FTTH for example) will be an essential component. They are directly influencing on ICT penetration within the population. This transition to a fixed, mobile and multimedia network, controlled by a unique architecture, renews in depth the regulatory approach. Value will gradually be redistributed from access towards service and content providers. As a consequence, it is important to anticipate the changes on the value chain associating a relevant regulation. « Très haut débit », un titre qui n’est que l’arbre qui cache la forêt. En effet, peu importe en réalité le volume du débit, celui ci n’ira qu’en augmentant, suivant quelque part la célèbre loi de Moore applicable aux processeurs1. 1 La Loi de Moore (exprimée en 1965 par Gordon Moore fondateur d’Intel). Cette loi pose le principe que la complexité des semi-conducteurs proposés en entrée de gamme

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LES ENJEUX JURIDIQUES DES SERVICES DE COMMUNICATION AUDIOVISUELLE LE PROJET DE DIRECTIVE « SERVICES DE MÉDIAS AUDIOVISUELS »

Grégoire WEIGEL
Conseil Supérieur de l’Audiovisuel
Direction des Etudes et de la prospective
Chargé d’enseignement à l’Université
Paris I (Panthéon-Sorbonne)

Legal Stakes Around Audiovisual Services
Summary

The modernisation of the “Television without Frontiers” Directive of 1989 was proposed by the Commission on December 13th 2005. The new Directive intends to help Europe’s audiovisual industry to become more competitive by allowing all audiovisual media services to profit from the internal market, regardless of the transmission technology used. In this perspective, the “Audiovisual media services” Directive is a response to technological developments and creates a new level-playing field in Europe for emerging audiovisual media services (video on demand, mobile TV, audiovisual services on digital TV). The new Directive reaffirms the “country of origin” principle to ensure that audiovisual media service providers other than broadcasters (such as providers of video-on-demand, news-on-demand, sport-on-demand or providers of downloadable audiovisual content for mobiles) will have to comply only with the legislation of the country where they are established, and not with 27 different national legal systems. The text introduces flexible rules on TV advertising to leave the broadcasters and filmmakers adopt the decision on when and how to interrupt free-to-air TV programmes. The new Directive also explicitly encourages industry self-regulation and co-regulation between state and non-state interests. Lastly, the “Audiovisual media services” Directive reaffirms the common policy objectives that require Member States to take appropriate measures to protect minors, to promote European works and independent audiovisual productions, and to prohibit content that would incite religious or racial hatred.

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LA SOCIÉTÉ DE L’INFORMATION DANS L’ENTREPRISE

Xavier AUCOMPTE1
Intervenant Université Paris Dauphine en Master 2 MIDO2
Cofondateur du Blog de la Communauté des Managers Intranet3
Responsable du Secteur Intranet au sein de la DRH Groupe
GROUPAMA4

Today’s information based society inside the company
Summary

Companies today are having to find answers for today’s and tomorrow’s issues be they economic, ecological, social, human or energy based. We are all changing, and today’s company workers and collaborators have totally different expectations from what yesterday’s did. The bridge between private and professional spheres is more and more complicated to manage. Human relations and the generational gap outside and inside the company have become more complex and have changed the way knowledge is passed on. And all these difficult issues come to a head in the revolution of practices we are experiencing today. Yesterday, in France, employees had more efficient and innovative company tools whose use was well mapped out. Today, this same employee has even better tools at home and has developed his capacity to use and exploit these tools which can often not be integrated into professional life. It isn’t so much a revolution of the tools at his disposal but of the use he makes (or not) of them within his company... What’s at stake then is imagining tomorrow’s company that is both profitable and efficient and that would be capable of making the most of these changes in habit rather than have them inflicted upon it. The following article invites you to explore some of the options available to face this “revolution of practices”.

1 Ensemble des références : http://www.mybloglog.com/buzz/members/xaucompte/ 2 MIDO : http://www.ufrmido.dauphine.fr/ 3 Blog des Managers Intranet : http://b-r-ent.com/ 4 Groupama : http://www.groupama.com/

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DATA PROTECTION IN ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS

Georgeta BASARABESCU
President

The National Authority for the Supervision of Personal Data
Summary

In order to harmonize the Romanian legislation to the acquis communitaire, it was necessary the set up of a supervisory authority, independent from any authority of the public administration, as well as from any natural or juridical person from the private area, which has the administrative authority to implement the legislation regarding the personal data protection, to a level comparable with the one in other EU Member States. The protection of personal data represents a new sector for the Romanian legislative framework. Its’ essence regards, in a generic form, the natural person’s right of protection of those specific features which lead to his/her identification and the state’s correlative obligation of adopting adequate measures to ensure an efficient protection. Under the Law no. 677/2001 on the person’s protection regarding the processing of personal data and the free circulation of these data, the acquis represented by the Directive no. 95/46/EC was implemented, which sets up the general juridical frame of the personal data protection at European Union level. Law no. 506/2004 guarantees the protection of personal data, data which are being processed by the public network electronic communications services providers, by the electronic communications services providers for the public, by providers of services with value added and also by the providers of subscribers’ registers. With regard to the electronic communications sector, the legal framework created by Law no. 677/2001 is being completed by Law no. 506/2004. Taking into account the continuous evolution of the communication technologies which allow a quick and intense exchange of information, including the users’ personal data, the necessity of guaranteeing an efficient protection for the personal data in this field represents an important objective, a component of the juridical guarantees of the system concerning the human rights. In order to harmonize the Romanian legislation to the acquis communitaire, it was necessary the set up of a supervisory authority, independent from any authority of the public administration, as well as from any natural or juridical person from the private area, which has the administrative authority to implement the legislation regarding the personal data protection, to a level comparable with the one in other EU Member States.

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MODÈLES, ARCHITECTURES ET INÉGALITÉ NUMÉRIQUE

Radu-Gheorghe GEAMÃNU
Maître de conférence
Doyen de la Faculté de Droit « Simion Bãrnuţiu »
Université « Lucian Blaga», Sibiu
Gheorghe AVRAM
Maître de conférence Alba Iulia

Models, Architectures and Digital Inequalities
Summary

At all levels of the market local, national or global competition concerns are raised if the control over important communications infrastructure could be used to leverage the parties’ positions into related markets. This concern is a common one when looking at internet-related markets, given that vertical integration - the presence of the same companies on upstream and downstream markets - is frequent. It’s necessary to develop modern public services and a dynamic environment for e-business through widespread availability of broadband access at competitive prices and a secure information infrastructure. The new environment is very complex. In order to build a such administrative and business environment it become necessary to define the right behavior of actors involved. This paper try to approach these big challenge in a systematic manner, defining a federative model of multicultural environment. This model is enveloped with an services architecture, covering both public and private areas, and pointing on main directives of Council governing public, private and public-private relationship. We try not only to prove the necessity of a such approach but to define a guide to a necessary migration. I. Introduction La caractéristique, peut être la plus importante de la contemporanéité immédiate constitue la révolution sur la société basée sur la connaissance. Dans certaines espaces géographiques, les concepts et les structures de cette époque s’approchent à la maturité. Les changements qui mènent à la couverture spécifique aux relations des acteurs sociaux sont eux-mêmes en cours de consolidation. La base sociale de cette révolution est constitué par la structuration de l’information, la structuration de l’information contextuelle et, évidemment, l’accès aux celles-ci. La nouvelle société

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LEX MERCATORIA ET LE COMMERCE ÉLECTRONIQUE

Eugenia FLORESCU
Maître de conférence
Faculté de Droit « Simion Bãrnuţiu »
Université « Lucian Blaga», Sibiu

Lex mercatoria and the Electronic Commerce
Summary

Using virtual space, people have the possibility to buy goods (software), downloading from computers, or downloading from the sellers’ website. A multitude of offers and receiving of products and services are launched in a interactive manner, from all corners of the world and no matter where they would come from, the products and the services get to the buyers through traditional/ common distribution channels. In order to get them, wiothout moving phisically to where they are, one can accept the offer through a simple click. Compared to peoples’s interest in this type of purchase, we wonder whether, the principle stipulated in art. no.56 Romanian Trading Code, according to which the trade law is appliable also to the contracts closed by the seller with the non seller, acts in all hypothesis. . We can say that, contract closing is based on offer and acceptance, launched by persons who are at distance. It is particular to trade business even though they embrace the modern expression in order to respond to the demands of the electronic/ online trade. In fact the normative acts recently adopted solve the fundamental issue , that of meeting in real time and in a extremely simple manner, of the purchasers’wishes , knowing that the purchasers are in different geographical points. Nevertheless, the judicial fundement related to the closing of the contracts is also found in the Romanian Trade Code issued on the 10th of May 1887, whose disposals, , enforced 120 years ago, don’t contravene with the community law, regarding correspondence contract closing or between persons found at distance. What it would rather seem inadequate is the transposition of communitary directives into our country’s internal law, which with regards to the closing and the execution of the contracts closed from distance, has gaps and it’s not correlated with the notion of electronic/ online trade and with the sphere of incidence of the trade law1.

1 Certain normative acts recently adopted refer directly to the online trade and others pursue consumer’s protection, consumer as party in the trade contracts closed directly or by correspondence or online means. There were adopted: Law no.365/7 june 2002 regarding online trade, published in the Romanian Official Monitor no. 483/5 july 2006 and republished in the Romanian Official Monitor no. 959/29 november 2006;

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UN SEUL RÉSEAU DE COMMUNICATION – UN SEUL MONDE – UN INTERNET

Conf. univ. dr. ing. Remus BRAD
Centre de Communications
Universitatea “Lucian Blaga” Sibiu

Summary

The evolution of communication networks is first determined by the valueadded services spread over, as fixed or mobile telephony, television and Internet. If 5 years ago, data transfer monopolized the network bandwidth, today, traditional services as above-mentioned are migrating and taking over the Internet traffic. The transfer process of analog towards digital services is generally called convergence. For the undergoing theoreticians of the idea of unification, the following question aroused: “Does the use of a unique infrastructure mean convergence?”. Although, as shown in the present paper, nowadays the same infrastructure can occasionally be used (television, data access, fixed and mobile telephony), in a truly convergent network, all the services are transported using the same protocol, coded at source and decoded at destination according to necessities. Convergence stands for combining all four data transmission services into one convergent network. Le contexte précurseur de la convergence L’évolution vers les nouveaux réseaux de communication est déterminée éminemment par les services à valeur ajoutée que ceux-ci colportent, tels la téléphonie fixe et mobile, la télévision et l’Internet. Tandis qu’il y a cinq années, le transfert de données accaparait la plupart de la bande de trafic, à présent, des services traditionnels tels ceux énumérés auparavant, migrent et monopolisent le trafic à travers l’Internet. Ce processus de transfert des services analogiques vers le support de transfert digital s’appelle convergence. En termes de technologie, la convergence peut signifier l’adoption d’un certain standard ou d’une technologie (comme par exemple, l’utilisation d’une certaine plateforme architecturale d’ordinateur du type PC), ou, en termes d’équipement périphérique, le développement des dispositifs multifonctionnels (par exemple l’imprimante/ le scanner/ le fax, le portable). Dans le contexte du réseau d’ordinateurs, la convergence renvoie à la consolidation des réseaux individuels dans un seul réseau de type Internet qui utilise le protocole IP. C’est à cette hypostase (sic) qu’on fera référence dans cet article.

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UNIVERSITIES AND THE INFORMATION SOCIETY

Vasile BALTAC
Professor of Information Technology
at the National School of Political Studies
and Public Administration
President of ATIC – Information Technology
and Communications Association of Romania

Summary

While Romanian economy performs remarkable well, ICT industry follows the pace. Universities in Romania bring a recognized contribution to satisfy the needs of ICT industry and economy in general. Digital Divide is still in many countries an obstacle to build the Information Society. The concept of the Four Pillars is presented with considerations on ways to consolidating them. The relation between universities and ICT in Romania is analysed, including by the results of 2 surveys.

ROMANIA: General Framework The Economy

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RÉGLEMENTATION DES COMMUNICATIONS EN ROUMANIE – PEUT-ON PARLER D’UN SUCCÈS ?

Bogdan MANOLEA
Directeur exécutif de l’Association pour
Technologie et Internet
Webmaster du site www.legi-internet.ro

The Regulation of the Electronic Communications in Romania – A Story of Success?
Summary

The article debates the essential modifications to the regulatory framework on electronic communications in 2002 and the decision to adopt right away the new acquis communitaire adopted by the European Union in the same year, Romania being the first country that implemented it. Five years later we have the opportunity to analyse if the decision was the right one, taking into consideration the development of the market, the modifications to the legislative framework and the consumers reaction. The general presentation of the new legislative framework adopted starting with 2002 in Romania, is combined with explanations of the major changes brought by these new normative acts. Our view on the negative impact of the new legislation is focused around the main point of legislative instability, non-respecting the principle of stability for the leaders of the Communications Regulatory Authority and the way the radiofrequencies were assigned to different authorities under direct Government subordination. The positive impact of the changes in the regulatory framework are explained by the implementation of the general authorisation regime with its important impact in two situations with a certain specificity of the Romanian market : the development of the “neighbourhood networks” – small ISPs started by regular users of Internet who wanted more interconnectivity between computers and the big percentage of the new subscribers acquired by the alternative fixed telephony operators in just four years after the opening of the fixed telephony market. 1. Introduction Le cadre législatif se rapportant à la réglementation des communications a constitué un sujet peu débattu dans les articles de spécialité juridique ou économique en Roumanie, étant considéré, en général, réservé à des spécialistes techniques ou bien à ceux qui travaillent effectivement dans le domaine des communications. Le développement que ce domaine a eu les derniers cinq ans, tant du point de vue de

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CODEX LEICESTER INTERNET AND REBIRTH OF THE HUMAN SPIRIT

Alin POPESCU
Lawyer1

Motto Did you know that2?

1. The number of the daily sent sms messages overcomes the aggregate number of Terra’s population
2. There are, nowadays, almost 540 thousand words in the English language fund, namely five times more than during Shakespeare’s time
3. Over 3000 new books are published daily
4. The volume of technical data doubles every two years
5. Certain specialists estimate that the volume of information shall double each 72 hours in 2010
This material wishes to withdraw the attention over another type of digital fragmenting. It is the one challenged by the ever growing information afflux, which clearly advantages people having the power and the will to always be updated with the automation changes. Even more and more people are overcome by the volume of daily information published on Terra, so that the analphabetism caused by the updated information remains rather a matter of time then a probability. This danger, more real than many others, is often being ignored, for people prefer talking about digital fragmentation as if about a problem generally seen as differing in the states under development from that in the already developed states. Should we take a look back several hundred of years in the past, when differences were not that obvious, we could notice that today’s occurrence is nothing more but a consequence of the way our forefathers perceived information as if a universal panacea, meant to solve all problems.

1 Alin Popescu is Partner at Lipanescu, Popescu & Assoc, a romanian law firm, based in Bucharest. The firm’s practice areas covers only internet, software and digital copyright related disputes.
2 Facts taken from a slideshow originally created by Karl Fisch, examining globalization and America’s future in the 21st century.


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