REZUMAT NR. 2 AN 2008

ACŢIUNEA CIVILĂ ÎN VIZIUNEA PROIECTULUI NOULUI COD DE PROCEDURĂ CIVILĂ

Prof. univ. Dr.h.c. Ioan LEŞ
                                                                        Facultatea de Drept “Simion Bărnuţiu”
                                                                        Universitatea “Lucian Blaga” din Sibiu

Mots-clés: code de procédure civile, projet, action civile, définition, nature juridique, conditions d’exercice

L’action civile dans la vision du projet du nouveau code de procédure civile
Résum
é

L’adoption d’un nouveau code de procédure civile en Roumanie est un motif pour la doctrine de réfléchir profondément sur les principales institutions judiciaires envisagées par le législateur. L’auteur considère que l’action civile est l’une des institutions les plus importantes d’un code de procédure civile. 
Dans le travail ci-dessous l’auteur estime positive la tentative du législateur de définir, pour la première fois, l'action civile comme un ensemble des moyens procéduraux. Cette définition tend à déterminer l’action civile comme une institution processuelle.
L’auteur considère également comme positive la détermination des conditions d'exercice de l'action civile, malgré que cette détermination n’est pas de nature a rejeter toute forme de controverse dans la matière.
À la fin de l'étude, l'auteur considère que la doctrine va jouer un rôle important dans la clarification de certaines questions de procédure qui pourraient être générées par l’imperfection de quelques textes juridiques.

1. Consideraţii generale
Proiectul noului cod de procedură civilă promovează unele soluţii novatoare, majoritatea dintre ele fiind destinate a conduce la accelerarea procedurii judiciare. În acelaşi timp, autorii noului cod au păstrat un număr extrem de important şi semnificativ de reguli care şi-au găsit o reglementare corespunzătoare şi în vechea legislaţie procesuală. O atare abordare ni se pare salutară, căci fostul cod de procedură civilă a beneficiat şi de unele reglementări care, de-a lungul timpului, şi-au dovedit eficienţa practică. Frecventele modificări legislative la care a fost supus fostul cod de procedură civilă au determinat şi găsirea unor soluţii progresiste, conforme cu necesităţile jurisprudenţei. De altfel, multe din soluţiile promovate de legiuitor au fost impuse şi în trecut de imperativele jurisprudenţei.

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REFLECŢII PRIVIND CONŢINUTUL ŞI DEFINIŢIA DREPTULUI DE PROPRIETATE PRIVATĂ 

Prof. univ. dr.                                                                    Lector univ. dr.
     Ovidiu UNGUREANU                                                      Cornelia MUNTEANU
Facultatea de Drept “Simion Bărnuţiu”        Facultatea de Drept “Simion Bărnuţiu”
Universitatea “Lucian Blaga” din Sibiu         Universitatea “Lucian Blaga” din Sibiu

 

Mots-clés: droit de propriété, propriété privé, attributs, jus utendi, jus fruendi, jus abutendi, définitions 

Réflexions sur le contenu et la définition du droit
de propriété privé

Résumé

La propriété est une réalité ; avant d’être définie, protégée, limitée par des règles de droit, elle est une composante de l’ordre social.
La propriété apparaît tout d’abord comme une notion juridique auréolée de sa gloire. L’expression Beati possidentes imprègne certainement le concept de « propriété ». C’est vrai que pour le juriste, la propriété évoque l’archétype du droit subjectif et du droit réel. Le contenu contemporain de la propriété expriment des contradictions : d’une parte, la force de la propriété, d’autre parte, sa faiblesse. Mais il est évident que la propriété est d’une extraordinaire vitalité. En effet, la propriété est en expansion constante et elle ne cesse de conquérir de nouveaux domains.
D’abord, l’étude examine l’utilité et les attributs de la propriété ; l’article 480 du C.civ. précise bien quel est son contenu : « La propriété est le droit de jouir et disposer des choses … ». Puis on analyse les caractères du droit de propriété privé et ses définitions : la définition légale, les définitions doctrinaires et la définition avancée par la Projet du nouveau Code civil.

  1. Preliminarii

Proprietatea nu este numai un concept juridic pentru că ea există chiar înainte de a fi o noţiune legislativă, jurisprudenţială sau doctrinară; nu există societate umană fără proprietate. Din momentul în care lucrurile sunt apropriate omul

« Proprietatea este un fapt constant şi universal în toate ţările şi în toate timpurile (...). Cu cât omul se dezvoltă şi păşeşte pe calea progresului, cu atât el simte dezvoltându-se în inima sa dorinţa de a fi proprietar şi de a munci spre a-şi atinge scopul” (a se vedea, D. Alexandresco, Explicaţiunea teoretică şi practică a dreptului civil român, tom III, partea I, ediţia a II-a revăzută, complet refăcută şi mărită în mod considerabil, Atelierele grafice Socec, Bucureşti, 1909, p. 226).

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VINCULACIÓN Y NEGATIVA A CONTRATAR.
REFLEXIONES EN TORNO AL CASO MICROSOFT
(SENTENCIA DEL TPI DE 17 DE SEPTIEMBRE DE 2007)

Luis Antonio Velasco San Pedro
Carmen Herrero Suárez
Profesores de Derecho Mercantil
Universidad de Valladolid

Keywords: Microsoft case, Windows, antitrust, abuse of a dominant position, art.82 EEC Treaty, Tying  Agreements, refusal to deal,   Community sanction, competition law, EC Commission, essential facilities, trade secrets

The tying agreements and the refusal to deal
Thoughts over the Microsoft Case
(Sentence of the Court of First Instance from September 2007)

Summary

Few of the known cases regarding the Law of competence have drawn so much attention on both sides of the Atlantic, as the cases against the American company Microsoft Corporation.
The commercial politic and the management of the informatics giant from Redmond, specifically the usage the company makes of the market leader position regarding the operative systems, has been object of careful analysis by the competition authorities from both Europe and the USA.
The article is presenting the decisions pronounced concerning Microsoft in the United States as well as European Union, the compatibility of the   European rules regarding competition  with the article 82 of the Treaty establishing the European Community, that prohibits and sanctions any abuse by one or more undertakings of a dominant position within the common market, including the refusal of Microsoft to facilitate certain compatibility information to his competitors.  
The development of the Community competition policy has been significantly influenced by the above mentioned case.

I.- PANORÁMICA

Pocos casos han despertado tanta expectación en los últimos años como los distintos procesos que, en aplicación del Derecho de la competencia, han tenido lugar, a ambos lados del Atlántico, contra la empresa norteamericana Microsoft Corporation

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LE CODE CIVIL DU QUÉBEC ET L’ADMINISTRATION PUBLIQUE

Pierre LEMIEUX
Professeur titulaire, Ancien doyen,
Faculté de Droit,
Université Laval, Québec, Canada

Keywords : Quebec Civil Code, public administration, extra-contractual responsibility, regulations, particularities.

Quebec Civil Code and public administration
Summary

The legal system of Quebec shows some particularities in respect of its positive law sources due to the double legal system that characterizes Quebec. Therefore, private law has evolved following the civil law system logics while the public law rests on common law grounds. This double legal system is determined by the historic development of Canada. While the Civil Code is inspired by the norms in force at that time in the Lower Canada, same as the French Civil Code from 1804, the Canadian public law has developed since 1760 following a British model.
Following this, contracts and the extra-contractual responsibility of the administration are ruled by the Civil Code, the various laws in force as well as by the norms of common law where the legislator has left room for their application. Starting from these premises this study concentrates on two major problems: the Civil Code and the contracts of the administration (conditions for concluding the contract, legal regime of the contract and its effects); the Civil Code, extra-contractual responsibility and public common law (incorporation of public common law in the Civil Code, harmonizing civil law and common law).

Introduction
Le système juridique du Québec présente certaines particularités quant aux sources de son droit positif. Le Québec se caractérise, en effet, par son double système juridique. Ainsi, le droit privé évolue dans une logique civiliste tandis que le droit public repose sur la common law. Ce double système juridique s’explique par l’histoire du Canada.

À l’époque de la Nouvelle-France, le Canada était régi par le droit français, en particulier par la Coutume de Paris. En 1763, la cession du Canada par la

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ASPECTE PRIVIND COMPETENŢA TERITORIALĂ  A  INSTANŢELOR  DE  JUDECATĂ DE A SOLUŢIONA CONFLICTELE DE DREPTURI

  Conf. univ. dr. Marioara ŢICHINDELEAN
Lector univ. drd. Monica GHEORGHE
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bărnuţiu”
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga” din Sibiu

Keywords: competence, jurisdiction, territorial jurisdiction, exclusive territorial, jurisdiction, labour conflict, employer, employee, trade union, home/ residence/ headquarter of the complaint.

Issues Regarding the Teritorial Jurisdiction Courts to Settle the Right Conflicts

Summary

At present, according to art. 284, paragraph 2 from the Labor Code regarding the settlement of labor conflicts – the jurisdiction of law courts in the settlement of conflicts of rights belong to the court of law in the district where the claimant has his headquarters/residence, domicile or residence. This provision repealed implicitly the provisions of art. 72 Law nr. 168/1999 and stipulates derogatory jurisdiction from the common law, establishing the regulation according to which the jurisdiction belongs to the court of law in the district where the claimant has his domicile or residence, or headquarters. The solution of the legislator is considered positive, just/impartial and in flavor of the employees or trade unions in position of claimant. This regulation also aims to facilitate the access of employees to justice/law, favoring them as against their employer, taking into consideration the fact that in most cases the claimant in labor conflicts is the employee. The jurisdiction of the courts of law in the settlement of labor conflicts is exclusive; it can be eliminated neither by the parties, nor by the court of law.

            Competenţa de judecată presupune capacitatea instanţei judecătoreşti de a soluţiona anumite cereri sau litigii. Competenţa jurisdicţională presupune delimitarea atribuţiilor instanţelor judecătoreşti între ele, respectiv întinderea puterilor legale ale instanţei judecătoreşti cu privire la judecarea litigiilor cu a căror soluţionare a fost sesizată. Din această perspectivă, competenţa jurisdicţională se prezintă sub două forme: competenţa materială şi competenţa teritorială.

I. Leş, Tratat de drept procesual civil, ediţia 3, Editura All Beck, Bucureşti, 2005, p. 185.
M. Costin, I. Leş, M.Şt. Minea, C. Costin, S. Spinei, Dicţionar de procedură civilă, ediţia a 2-a, Editura Hamangiu, Bucureşti, 2007, p. 270.

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 DREPTUL ŞI PROVERBELE (I)
 PERSOANA FIZICĂ, DREPTURILE PERSONALITĂŢII

Prof. univ. dr. Călina JUGASTRU
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bărnuţiu”
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga” din Sibiu

Mots-clés: droit, adages, personne phisique, valeurs morales, droits de la personnalité,  droit à l’honneur, droit à la dignité

Le droit et les adages (I)
La personne phisique et les droits de la personnalité

Résumé

L’expérience populaire a des échos, au fil du temps, dans l’espace juridique; découvrir la relation entre les sciences juridiques et les adages – c’est une réelle provocation. Mais, n’oublions pas qu’on peut rechercher l’origine des premiers adages juridiques dans la nuit des temps, dans l’héritage spirituel du peuple roumain. Avant la loi c’était la coutume, c’était la sagesse qui a trouvé sa forme la plus sinthétique dans les adages.
Dans une première partie, on étudiera la relation droit-adages dans la matière des droits de la personnalité. Les sciences juridiques réglementent le droit à l’honneur et le droit à la dignité, telles que prérogatives extrapatrimoniales attachées à la personne humaine. L’honneur est un „bien” qui appartient à la personnalité; la dignité est un attribut qui présupose bonne foi, honnêteté et une bonne réputation. Les adages, aussi, évoque le fait que l’individu et ses qualités morales sont plus importants que l’argent. Le caractère nonpatrimonial de ces droits de la personnalité se retrouve aussi dans les adages.

Dreptul şi proverbele
Proverbul stârneşte curiozitatea intelectuală şi îndeamnă la căutare. Căutare de sensuri, de cele mai multe ori dincolo de literă. Culegătorul de folclor enunţă doar maxima. Dar oare câte sensuri i-a dat mintea care a născocit-o? Condeiul aşterne fraza pe hârtie. Dar câtă suferinţă sau fericire, câtă revoltă sau împlinire, câtă agonie şi cât extaz au măcinat cuvintele până s-au aşezat singure în proverbe?

Cotidianul e presărat de proverbe. Unele le-am asimilat aproape inconştient din lecturi, de la cei din jur şi le rostim firesc, atunci când firul conversaţiei o cere. Găsim instantaneu contextul potrivit pentru un proverb, simţindu-i sensul, confirmând cele ce spunem sau suplinindu-le pe cele nespuse. Vorbă de duh, proverbul oferă celui care îl rosteşte, aura înţelepciunii şi a experienţei. În aparenţă, simplu. La a doua privire, interesant. Apoi, straniu, pentru că primul sens e depăşit de un al doilea sau de un al treilea sens. Filosofia proverbului ...

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CONTRACTUL COLECTIV DE MUNCĂ ŞI RELATIVITATEA EFECTELOR CONVENŢIILOR (I)

Lector univ. dr. Adrian CIRCA
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bărnuţiu”
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga” din Sibiu

Keywords: the collective labor contract, the relative effect of conventions, agreement, effects, derogation from the principle of relativity.

The collective labor contract and the relativity of conventions' effects
(I)

Summary

Article 973 of the Romanian Civil Code sanctions the principle of the relativity of conventions in the following terms: “Conventions only have effects between the contracting parties.” The collective labor contract presents difficulties in correlating with the relative effect of conventions. The difficulty is due to a combination of factors which, usually, are not found in the same operation, namely: from the point of view of its genesis, the collective labor contract is an agreement subjected to the validity terms of legal acts, established by civil law; from the point of view of its effects, it resembles a spring of law and by which the social protection of wage workers is aimed at, as a component part of labor law.
      The relative effect of collective contracts refers to the fact that the effects take place between contracting parties, and the normative effect reflects both on individual contracts concluded by members taken individually, who were represented, and in the favor of all wage workers who are a part of the respective branch of activity. However, this normative effect will benefit not only the members of that particular organization, but all the persons who are a part of that collectivity of wage workers. From this point of view, we can talk about derogation from the principle of relativity.
            The exceptional character of the collective labor contract as compared to relativity may be nuanced depending on the degree of the collective labor contract and depending on the affiliation of the wage worker to the union organization.
On the whole, what determines that these collective agreements remain conventions is precisely the preeminence of the conventional element over the normative element. The effects derogating from the principle of relativity regard the same clauses applicable to legal individual labor relations. The other clauses of the collective contract, for instance regarding the constitution of a fund from the contribution of the owners, destined for activities in the field of collective negotiations (article 11 paragraph 3 from law 130/1996), produce effects only between contracting parties and are subject to the principle of relativity.

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RECURSURILE SPECIALE ÎN PROCEDURA CIVILĂ ROMÂNĂ
 II. RECURSURILE SPECIALE ÎN PROCEDURA CIVILĂ ROMÂNĂ DIN PERIOADA MODERNĂ ŞI CONTEMPORANĂ*

Lector univ. dr. Sebastian SPINEI
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bărnuţiu”
                                                                     Universitatea „Lucian Blaga” din Sibiu

Mots-clés : procédure civile roumaine, voies de recours, pourvoi en cassation, recours spéciaux, recours en surveillance, recours extraordinaire, recours en annulation.

Les recours spéciaux dans la procédure civile roumaine (II) .
Les recours spéciaux dans la procédure civile roumaine dans la période moderne et contemporaine

Résumé

            Le pourvoi en cassation est l’archétype du voie de recours destinée à éliminer les violations de la loi, à supprimer les jugements irrégulières et à assurer l’unité de la jurisprudence.
            De ce modéle initiale, ont été détachées des voies de recours avec des traits similaires de celles du pourvoi, mais avec des physionomies différentes en raison de quelques caractéristiques particulières. 
            Dans le système clasique de la Cassation, le pourvoi ou le recours ne fonctionnait pas d’une manière isolé, mais dans un assemblage, avec des autres recours spéciauxle pourvoi dans l’intérêt de la loi et le recours pour excès de pouvoir.
            Cette seconde étude examine la situation des recours spéciauxdans la procédure civile roumaine moderne et contemporaine – le recours en surveillance, le recours extraordinaire et le recours en annulation, qui ont remplacé les anciens recours spéciaux. Dans les prochaines numéros de cette revue seront examinées les règlements des recours spéciauxdans la période contemporaine.

* Prezentul studiu reprezintă a doua parte a unei analize dedicate recursurilor speciale în procedura civilă română, realizată dintr-o perspectivă istorică, urmărindu-se o prezentare a sistematică a reglementărilor în materie în trei epoci distincte. În următoarele numere ale revistei analiza va continua cu prezentarea recursurilor speciale în perioada contemporană.   
Dans une période quand, dans notre système de droit, le recours a été l’unique voie d’attaque ordinaire.

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AFIRMAREA UNUI DREPT – CONDIŢIE DE EXERCIŢIU A ACŢIUNII CIVILE

Lector univ. dr. Corina PETICĂ ROMAN
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bărnuţiu”
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga” din Sibiu

Keywords: statement of a right, existence of the right, legality, actuality, good faith, right abuse, suspensive term, suspensive condition.       

Statement of a right condition for civil action

Summary

            The identification of the conditions for exercising civil action derives in specialized literature, from ascertainments having the value of principle, asserting free access to justice, materialized in the liberty to exercise action without constraints imposed by the necessity of such prior warranties or authorization.
            The statement of the subjective right is a more appropriate wording to the requirements and exigencies of a judicial order, therefore being analyzed by a great part of theoreticians in civil procedure. The “existence” or “statement” of a right are two distinct notions deriving from different reasoning.  
            The existence of law is a legal aspect that is to be established by final court decision.
            The statement of the right on a declarative level without further proof, could even infirm the existence of that right, determining the court to pronounce an unfavorable resolution for the plaintiff.
            The conditions which should be fulfilled by the stated right refer to two aspects: legality and the actuality of the law.
            Legality brings into discussion good faith and its absence in the development and exercising of rights while actuality deals with discussions on the modalities of the legal act, their effects and the exceptions provided in the Code of Civil Procedure.

 

Identificarea condiţiilor de exercitare a acţiunii civile porneşte în literatura de specialitate de la câteva constatări cu valoare de principiu, care afirmă liberul acces la justiţie, concretizat în libertatea de a exercita acţiunea fără constrângeri impuse de necesitatea unor garanţii sau autorizări prealabile.
Lipsa unei orientări unitare în doctrina românească se datorează în mare parte legiuitorului care, prin formulări foarte generale, nu a tratat această problemă ci, dimpotrivă, a oferit ocazia de a fi disputată şi analizată în contradictoriu. Ne referim la dispoziţiile articolelor 41(1), 42, 1o9(1) şi 111 C. proc. civ.

O iniţiativă binevenită în acest sens, este proiectul noului cod de procedură civilă care face referire pentru prima dată, la condiţiile necesare pentru formularea şi susţinerea unei cereri în faţa instanţei de judecată. Articolul 29(1)

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INCONVENIENTELE DE VECINĂTATE - O POSIBILĂ SURSĂ DE RĂSPUNDERE CIVILĂ

Lector univ. drd. Laura-Maria CRĂCIUNEAN
Universitatea “Lucian Blaga” din Sibiu
Facultatea de Drept “Simion Bărnuţiu”

Mots-clefs : troubles de voisinage, inconvénients anormaux, activité licite, l’abus de droit, propriétés voisines, source de responsabilité, situation de voisinage

Les troubles de voisinage – une possible source de responsabilité civile

Résumé

La théorie des troubles de voisinage est un mécanisme juridique établi sur base de la théorie des équilibres des droits entre des propriétés et développée ayant comme point de départ la théorie de l’abus de droit.
Elle est destinée à rétablir une égalité préexistante mais rompue entre propriétés voisines. Cette rupture d'équilibre ne peut se concevoir qu'en comparaison avec une situation antérieure.
C’est la doctrine et la jurisprudence française que on fait pour la première fois cette distinction, entre l’abus du droit et les troubles des voisinage, mais elle est devenue aussi importante pour le droit roumain en existant beaucoup des auteurs de droit civil que soutienent la nécessité d’une telle source de responsabilité.
            Le professeur Gérard Cornu a défini les troubles anormales de voisinage comme “dommages causés à un voisin (bruit, fumées, odeurs, ébranlement etc.) qui, lorsqu’ils excèdent les inconvénients ordinaires du voisinage, sont jugés anormaux et obligent l’auteur du trouble à dédommager la victime, quand bien même ce trouble serait inhérent à une activité licite et qu’aucune faute ne pourrait être reprochée à celui qui le cause. En posant ce principe, la jurisprudence a distinguée la théorie des troubles de voisinage de celle de l’abus de droit”. Le juge français a considère que  “le caractère anormal d’un trouble de voisinage doit s’apprécier in concreto en tenant compte des circonstances de lieu” parce que il est naturel que les voisins supportent mutuellement certain inconvénients inhérents à cette situation de voisinage.

I. Noţiunea, justificarea necesităţii teoriei inconvenientelor de vecinătate şi o încercare de clasificare a principalelor inconveniente rezultate din vecinătate

Noţiunea – În mod tradiţional, limitarea pe cale judecătorescă a dreptului de proprietate privată se poate realiza atunci când un proprietar, căruia lege îi recunoaşte dreptul de a obţine toate foloasele şi de a profita de întreaga utilitate a bunului său, acţionează într-un mod apreciat drept abuziv şi când se impune ...

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FUZIUNEA TRANSFRONTALIERĂ A SOCIETĂŢILOR COMERCIALE (I)

Asist. univ. drd. Andreea Corina TÂRŞIA
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bărnuţiu”
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga” din Sibiu

Keywords: cross-border merger, joint-stock company (JSC), sleeping partners company (SPC), company with limited liability (LLC), European company (EC)

The cross-border merger of companies

Summary

Free competition on the European single market implies free movement of capital conjugate with market rules and stimulating foreign investments, in terms of protection of consumers and shareholders.
            In order to harmonize and render uniform laws of the Member States in fields of common interest, the EC Directive no. 2005/56 of 26 October 2005 on cross-border mergers of companies expressly states".. the objective of the proposed action”, establishing “.. the rules with common elements to the transnational level ..”, reiterating the objective of “…removal of barriers to trade and adaptation of production structures in the size of the Community”, which is expressed in the preamble to Regulation (EC) no. 2157/2001 of 8 October 2001 regarding the status of the European company (SE).
            Reorganization by co penetration of patrimonies is very important for achieving goals of great scale on which these companies are planning to extend the work, acquiring new clientele and maximize profits.

1. Legislaţia europeană a fuziunilor şi achiziţiilor, model de reglementare internă
Având ca rezultat sporirea dimensiunii societăţilor comerciale, fuziunile şi achiziţiile reflectă într-o manieră pregnantă, impactul globalizării în Uniunea Europeană. În aceste condiţii, frecvent, unele guverne ale statelor membre s-au opus preluării controlului de către societăţi comerciale străine, invocând motive de interes naţional şi tergiversând transpunerea în legislaţia internă a Directivei dedicată fuziunilor şi achiziţiilor, al cărui termen de integrare în ordinea juridică internă era, cel mai târziu, data de 20 mai 2006. 

Incontestabil, O.U.G. nr. 52 din 21 aprilie 2008 pentru modificarea şi completarea Legii nr. 31/1990 privind societăţile comerciale şi pentru completarea Legii nr. 26/1990 privind registrul comerţului facilitează fuziunea transfrontalieră a ...

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INSTRUMENTELE STRUCTURALE

Conf. univ. dr. Iordan NICOLA
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bărnuţiu”
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga” din Sibiu

Keywords: European Fund for Regional Development, Cohesion Fund, financing tools.

Structural Instruments
Summary

According to the E.U. and national legislation, the structural instruments are composed from the Structural Funds that include the European Fund for Regional Development, the European Social Fund and the Cohesion Fund.
According to the article no. 130A from the European Community Treaty foresees the following: “in order to promote the efficient development of the Community, this develops and follows actions that lead to the strengthening of it’s economic and social cohesion. The article nr. 130B says that: “the Community sustains the accomplishment to these objectives through the actions that it takes, through the Structural Funds (the European Agricultural Orientation and Granting Fund, the European Social Fund, the European Fund for Regional Development) and the funds form the European Investment Bank and other existing financial instruments.
According to the article no. 1, 2nd paragraph, letter A, from the Governmental Order no. 29/2007, the structural instruments are defined as follows: “the European Union financing tools received from the European Fund for Regional Development, the European Social Fund and the Cohesion Fund by Romania, as a new E.U. member state”.
The Cohesion Fund has been created through the Maastricht Treaty in 1992 in order to finance some projects that dealt with the environmental protection and the transport infrastructure development in four countries from the E.U. that were considered the poorest: Spain, Portugal, Ireland and Greece.
The Cohesion Fund is regulated by the E.U. Council’s Regulation no. 1084/2006, which foresees the financing of environmental protection and trans-European transportation routes, sustained development and improvement of aerial traffic and road, and finally urban transport management projects.
Despite of the Structural Funds, the Cohesion Fund doesn’t finance programs, but precisely identified and concrete projects or stages (steps) from a project. 
European Territorial Co-operation was created in 1975 and it became the most important Structural Instrument through financed the Regional Policy of the community and it has almost 85% of the total Structural Founds.
European Social Found was created in 1958, being the first Community Funds, set up to promoting economic and social cohesion across the community and it contribute to the implementation of  “European Strategy for Growth”.  ESF will finance projects in the following domain: support the social inclusion, the work integration for unemployed workers and other priorities for the work market; the sustaining of the enterprise and productiveness measures for the employees; improvement of the school system and also the professional system; extending of the active work life and woman participation in the work market and the same thing for the immigrants; promoting the social inclusion for the disadvantaged groups; sustain the human potential in research, science and technology.

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UNIUNEA EUROPEANĂ – O CULTURĂ JURIDICĂ COMUNĂ

Conf. univ. dr. Daiana Maura VESMAŞ
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bărnuţiu”
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga” din Sibiu

Keywords: European legal culture, European law, europenization, European identity, ius commune europaeum, European legal dogmatism, rule of law, independence of justice, confesional neutrality of the state, unity in diversity, legal transfer, legal unity, cultural unity, universality of the European legal culture.

The European Union as a common legal culture

Summary

Europe, understood as a community of values, has to be understood also as a legal and cultural community, as a community of legal culture. The aspiration for freedom, justice and common wealth has created a series of paradigma, which are integrated now in the cultural legacy of the mankind forming, together with te achievements in literature, art, painting, music, architecture, a.s.o, the cultural genotype of Europe, regarded as a whole. As comparative element have been considered fundamentalistic and/or dictatorship models, including the particular models generated in Eastern Europe.
Today, Europe has to confront an intercultural challenge and competition. Therefor, we also have to regard Europe from outside, with an critical eye. This is important when considering Latin America, Africa or the islamic countries, but also in regard to the EEC countries inside Europe. The great past and the great future of European Law, understood  in a large and/ or in a restrained sense, should be understood as a Europe limited system, or maybe as a modell and/or alternative,  but not as a new „colonial” movement of europenization of the world. The juridical transfer, regarded as part of the cultural transfer, to the developing countries including the CEE countries, should be made with tolerance and in respect of other cultures and law systems .It is also to desire that the CEE countries have the power, the creativity and the will to internalize the foreign European law but, at the same time, the European legal system has to remain open to the legal influences coming out from other countries. Because this tolerance, assimilation capacity and capacity to learn, remain the main values of mankind in a interconnected world.

  1. CONSIDERAŢII INTRODUCTIVE

Dreptul şi cultura juridică constituie aspecte centrale ale identităţii Europei, un fel de culme sclipitoare a culturii sale. Fundamentele teoretice ale acestora au fost aşezate în Grecia antică de către Aristotel, care a realizat, în Etica Nicomahică, primele dezvoltări ale ideilor de egalitate şi dreptate, iar în Roma antică ...

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DISCRIMINARE LEGISLATIVĂ ÎN INCRIMINAREA UNOR FAPTE ANTISOCIALE

Conf. univ. dr. Ion POIANĂ
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bărnuţiu”
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga” din Sibiu
Cornel HERLEA
Procuror, Parchetul de pe lângă
      Curtea de Apel Alba Iulia

Keywords: legal repealing, incrimination, lack of social danger, Forest Code, hunting, cynegetic background, tax dodging

Legal repealing in the
incrimination of antisocial acts

Summary

In the evolution of the state's social-economical life or of the causes that determine a person to commit deeds that are incriminated by the criminal law, there is a possibility that the legal authority might appreciate that it's not necessary for a deed to be considered a crime, or it might decide which are the circumstances that determine the lack of criminal nature of the subject's behavior.
The paper describes the repealing of criminal deeds as a consequence of the lack of their social danger, based on article 18/1 of the Criminal Code. That leaves the right of making a decision in the hands of the magistrate (prosecutor or judge), giving him power or imperium in this matter. So, in this circumstance, the repealing is determined by the absence of one of the three elements of a crime, namely it's lack of public danger. So the deed is committed with guilt and is incriminated by the criminal code, but it doesn't involve any social danger.
The authors analyze articles from special laws that they find to be legally discriminatory in relation with the judicial treatment of the subjects that took part in committing crimes, namely: article 120 from the Forest Code included in Law no. 46/2008, article 46/1 from the Law of hunting and protection of the cynegetic background and article number 10 line 1 thesis III from Law no. 241/2005 regarding the control and prevention of tax dodging.
At the end of the paper, the authors indicate the measures that should be taken in order to prevent and eliminate legal repealing.

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REGULI PRIVIND DETERMINAREA COMPETENŢEI JURISDICŢIONALE POTRIVIT REGULAMENTULUI CONSILIULUI NR. 44/CE/2001

Prep. univ. drd. Horaţiu Alexandru RUSU
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bărnuţiu”
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga” din Sibiu

Keywords: Private international law, Community law, Jurisdiction in civil and commercial matters, Council Regulation (EC) No 44/2001.

Establishing jurisdiction according to Council Regulation (EC) No. 44/2001

Summary

Regulating jurisdiction across Europe had its origins as early as the plans for a united Europe. Over the years, the intensification of international exchanges demanded for further development in the field of courts’ jurisdiction in civil and commercial matters. The inclusion of judicial cooperation in civil matters among the competences of the European Community triggered the adoption of a common set of rules to determine the jurisdiction in cases of civil or commercial litigations involving a person domiciled in a Member State.
The Council Regulation (EC) No. 44/2001 sets the rules on jurisdiction, recognition and enforcement of judgements in civil or commercial matters. However, this article will focus exclusively on the provisions of this Regulation concerning the jurisdiction, in the light of their direct effect over the Member State’s legal order. Particular attention will be directed to the special and exclusive jurisdiction provided for in the Regulation.
The judicial cooperation in Europe is open for future legal framing, within and outside the setting of the European Union. In an era of globalisation, civil and commercial relations require clear boundaries, and that includes the existence of an international set of rules establishing courts jurisdiction in such matters.

Cooperarea internaţională şi intensificarea relaţiilor economice la nivel mondial au avut ca efect sporirea importanţei raporturilor de drept internaţional privat şi au determinat o reglementare sistematică a acestora. Distingându-se ...

Se vorbeşte tot mai des  despre un proces de unificare şi armonizare a dreptului internaţional privat atât la nivel internaţional cât mai ales la nivel european, comunitar. Pentru o analiză a acestui proces a se vedea G. Bayraktaroglu, Harmonization of Private International Law at Different Levels: Communitarization v. International Harmonization, în European Jurnal of Law Reform, nr. 5/2003, p. 127-172.

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CUNOAŞTEREA DREPTURILOR OMULUI ŞI EVALUAREA PROTECŢIEI ACESTORA ÎN ROMÂNIA (ANCHETĂ DE OPINIE ÎN SIBIU ŞI CRAIOVA)

Lector univ. dr. Cristina OTOVESCU-FRĂSIE
Facultatea de Drept şi Ştiinţe Administrative
Universitatea din Craiova

Keywords: human rights, education, discrimination, social protection.

Human Rights Awareness and the Assessment of Human Rights Protection in Romania (public inquiry in Sibiu and Craiova)

Summary

The right to education is not equal applied all over the world. In Romania, the right to education represents one of the most known and appreciated rights of the citizens, not only before 1990, but also after this year. This study is focusing on the results of a field research, an inquiry on the population of Craiova and Sibiu, two important regions of Romania – situated in two different historical regions. The population of the two cities presents some particularities, determined by their own social, historical, economical, cultural and educational evolution, by the developed relations with other European states and civilizations.

1. Dreptul la educaţie în lumea contemporană şi educaţia în domeniul cunoaşterii drepturilor omului

În aproape toate regiunile ori continentele de pe glob au fost înfiinţate o serie de instituţii, care şi-au elaborat documente ori instrumente proprii cu scopul de a  proteja şi promova drepturile omului, şi anume: Convenţia Europeană a Drepturilor Omului (1950), Convenţia Americană a Drepturilor Omului (1969), Carta Africană a Drepturilor Omului şi Popoarelor (1986) şi, recent, Declaraţia Asiatică a Drepturilor Omului şi Carta Arabă a Drepturilor Omului.
Prin dreptul la educaţie se înţelege o varietate de drepturi şi libertăţi ale părinţilor şi copiilor, cărora le corespund o serie de obligaţii ale statului. Acest drept este considerat atât un drept economic, social şi cultural, cât şi un drept de natură civilă şi politică. „Statul are datoria de a asigura pluralismul în educaţie, dar poate impune unele obligaţii în sarcina instituţiilor de învăţământ sau chiar a indivizilor”.

Selejan Guţan, Protecţia europeană a drepturilor omului, ediţia a 2-a, Editura C.H. Beck, Bucureşti, 2006, p.195.


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