REZUMAT NR. 2 AN 2009

1. Drept privat

UTILIZAREA CORECTĂ SI UTILIZAREA GRESITĂ A CECULUI CA INSTRUMENT DE PLATĂ
– Jocul periculos al cecului de garanţie –

Prof. univ. dr. Ion TURCU
Universitatea „Babes-Bolyai” Facultatea de Drept Cluj-Napoca
Lect. univ. dr. Traian LASZLO
Universitatea „Bogdan-Vodă” Facultatea de DreptCluj-Napoca

Keywords: payment instrument, cheque, guarantee cheque, cheque frauds, legal qualification

The correct use and the faulty use of the cheque as a payment instrument – The danromous game of the guarantee cheque
Summary

The cheque frauds by means of which certain naive tradesmen get fooled while other inventive tradesmen get rich, use as an instrument the so called guarantee cheques. In fact, these cheques do not offer guarantees, and the tricks they pull with these instruments benefit of the “impunity guarantee”.
The question that rises is, however – in our opinion, crucial for a correct qualification of the guarantee check: what guarantee does this cheque have to offer if it has no coverage? In such an instance, we find it obviously illusive to speak about guarantee, because it lacks thoroughly. Our jurisprudence, as well as the French one, is not unitary and in our case we can notice such diversity that the conviction or discharge, become results of the hazard.

Cecul de „garanţie”, o controversă si o derută gravă De câţiva ani, fraudele cu cecuri prin care se păcălesc unii comercianţi naivi si îsi rotunjesc averea alţi comercianţi inventivi folosesc ca instrument asa-numitele cecuri de garanţie, cunoscute si în jurisprudenţa franceză, dar care, la noi, nu ...

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DISCRIMINAREA ÎN RAPORTURILE DE MUNCĂ PRIN PRISMA DIRECTIVEI NR. 2000/78/CE
A CONSILIULUI

Conf. univ. dr. Marioara ŢICHINDELEAN
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bărnuţiu”
Judecător – Tribunalul Sibiu

Keywords: equal treatment, discrimination, labor relationships

Discrimination within labor relationships according to Directive No. 2000/78/CE
Summary

The purpose of this Directive is to lay down a framework for combating discrimination on the grounds of religious origin or beliefs, handicap, age or sexual orientation in what concerns employment and the access to employment, with a view to putting into effect in the Member States the principle of equal treatment.
The principle of equal treatment represents in the community legislator’s view, the absence of any direct or indirect discrimination based on any of the mentioned reasons of religious origin or beliefs, handicap, age or sexual orientation.
Within the internal law, the principle of equal treatment of all employees and employers is regulated by Article 5 of the Labor code, which also forbids discrimination of any kind. The concrete, detailed regulation on the prevention and punishment of all forms of discrimination within labor relationships is given by the Government Ordinance No.137/2000.
The exercise of all the rights recognized and granted by law, without discrimination concerns the persons that are in comparable situations. Thus, Article 2 paragraph 3 of the national collective labor agreement regulates the employers’ duty to ensure equal treatment and chances for all employees regarding the access to employment and the granting of individual rights, without discrimination. In addition to this, according to Article 258 letter b of Labor code, the internal regulation also has to provide rules concerning the principle of non-discrimination and for combating any form of breaching the employees’ dignity.

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DREPTUL SI PROVERBELE (III)
PRINCIPIILE PROCESUALE, INSTANŢELE DE JUDECATĂ, PROBELE

Prof. univ. dr. Călina JUGASTRU
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga”, Sibiu
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bărnuţiu”

Mots-clés: droit, parémioloqué, litige, principes, instance judiciaire, preuve

Le droit et les adages (III) Les principes procesuels, les instances judiciaires, les preuves
Résumé

La troisième partie de l’étude analyse la relation droit-adages dans la matière procédurale. Le procès civil et le procès pénal représentent le cadre de mise en oeuvre des principes fondamentales (la légalité, le principe de la vérité), de l’administration des preuves et de la décision judiciare.
L’impératif de respecter la loi, les binomes bien-mal, vérité-mensonge, just-injust, trouvent leur expression dans l’espace des adages roumains. Le trésor parémiologique roumain contient des refléctions sur la qualité du jugement, la corruption des magistrats – dans certains cas, les erreurs judiciaires, le rôle des preuves, le temoigne.
Dans la sagesse populaire, le juge est l’avocat de la vérité; il „n’a ni mère, ni père, ni enfants” – ça signifie qu’il est impartiel. Il doit décider conformément à la loi et sous l’empire de l’esprit éthique.

Procesul civil, procesul penal
Comportamentul uman generează premisa provocării sau, dimpotrivă, condiţia evitării sancţiunii1. Conduita permisă răspunde exigenţelor ordinii de drept; conduita interzisă generează fărădelegea. Acţiunile si inacţiunile săvârsite de subiectul de drept dau conţinut noţiunilor de bine-rău, permis-nepermis, drept-nedrept, just-injust. Categoriile amintite au relief juridic si, în egală măsură, filosofic, sociologic, etic, politic. Cedarea dreptului individual era concepută, de pildă, de Thomas Hobbes la confluenţa a trei legi naturale: respectarea convenţiilor încheiate, pacea civilă si reciprocitatea. Iar imperativul respectării contractelor se întemeia pe ...

1 Doctrina de drept procesual civil a subliniat că sancţiunile au constituit o componentă deosebit de importantă în istoria dreptului, în cadrul tuturor sistemelor juridice. A se vedea, în acest sens, I. Les, Sancţiunile procedurale în materie civilă, ediţia a III-a, revizuită, Editura Hamangiu, Bucuresti, 2008, p. 1.

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CONSIDERAŢII PRIVIND CONDIŢIILE DE ADMISIBILITATE ALE CERERILOR INDIVIDUALE ADRESATE CURŢII EUROPENE A DREPTURILOR OMULUI

Lector univ. dr. Corina PETICĂ-ROMAN
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga”, Sibiu
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bărnuţiu”

Keywords: individual applications, victim of violation, claiming, admissibilitycriteria, domestic remedies, six months period of time, inadmissible

Considerations on the admissibility conditions of the individual claims brought before the European Court of Human rights
Summary

The European Court deals with cases in which an individual has not received adequate redress for violations in the courts in his or her country, or has been unable to access the national justice system.
Any Member State or individual may lodge a complaint with the Court alleging a breach of rights in the Convention by a Contracting State. In order for the Court to consider your application, it must meet certain criteria:
1. You must be a victim of a violation of one or more of the articles of the Convention. This usually means you will be a direct victim of a violation, although sometimes it is sufficient to show you are likely to be affected by a violation or that you belong to a group of people which is likely to be affected.
2. You must try all possible domestic remedies in your own country before applying to the European Court of Human Rights.
3. Any application must be made within six months of the conclusion of any court proceedings that you have taken in your own country that could have provided you with a remedy or, if there were no proceedings that it was reasonable to expect you to take, within six months of the event which gives rise to your application.
In recent years, the European human rights protection system has faced a number of challenges. This is not surprising given that it was established in the 1950s and human rights standards have gained considerably in importance since that time.

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REFLECŢII PRIVIND DREPTUL MORAL DE RETRACTARE

Lector univ. dr. Adrian CIRCA
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga”, Sibiu
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bărnuţiu”

Keywords: copyright, moral right of retract, principle of pacta sunt servanda

Reflections on one’s moral right of retracting their contractual obligations
Summary

The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union protects intellectual property. Fundamental liberties may be invoked as the foundation of intellectual property rights, thereby justifying the recognized exclusive rights (monopole) of the author or copyright holder. Under these circumstances, the fundamental rights and liberties stipulated in the Charter will be interpreted by the courts of the European Union and of its member states. The aforementioned courts grant it their attention and contribute to the preservation and development of these fundamental values. The liberties in case are regarded as such since their unrestricted practice is permitted, and they are considered public liberties as it is the state institutions’ responsibility to ensure the conditions under which they may be enforced.
The right to retract consecrates the juridical recognition of the author’s ability to create, which can only be exercised by the author; unlike other attributes, it ceases to exist upon the death of the author.
It is by means of this provision that the legislator has intended to take into account the authors’ regret and remorse and has made it possible for them to retract their contractual obligations. The very existence of this provision stands as a source of uncertainty for juridical security. Hence, a fair balance must be established between the holders of such rights and the users of secured objects.

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CONSIDERAŢII PRIVIND ADMISIBILITATEA CERERII RECONVENŢIONALE FORMULATE ÎMPOTRIVA CONTESTAŢIEI DECIZIEI DE IMPUTARE EMISE DE ANGAJATOR

Lector univ. drd. Monica GHEORGHE
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bărnuţiu” Facultatea de Drept din Sibiu
Lector univ. drd. Diana CRUMPĂNĂ
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga” Universitatea „Spiru Haret” din Râmnicu Vâlcea

Keywords: counter-claim, labor jurisdiction, pecunary action

Considerations on the admissibility of the counter-claim
Summary

At the present time, the pecuniary liability of employees may only be engaged in accordance with the provisions of Article 269-275 of Labor code. There is no lonrom possible to issue a decision of imputation in what the employees are concerned.
The counter-claim is being used in the pecuniary actions on a regular basis. By means of the counter-claim, the defendant pursues a legal compensation between the plaintiff’s claims and his own.
The admissibility of the counter-claim within labor disputes is subject to the same rules regarding any claim brought before a court of justice, as well as the following conditions: the existence of a main claim before a court, to embody all the elements of a writ of summons and to be connected to the plaintiff’s claim.
Generally, the counter-claim is regulated by Article 119 Civil procedure code, and is admissible within individual labor disputes and collective rights disputes if it is connected to the main claim, the claims not being limited to pecuniary rights only. In what the labor law is concerned, the connection between the two claims results from the mutual source of the legal labor relationship, namely the individual or collective labor agreement.

În studiul de faţă, ne propunem să analizăm posibilitatea formulării de cereri reconvenţionale în litigiile de muncă ce au ca obiect antrenarea răspunderii patrimoniale a salariatului pentru prejudiciul produs, din vina sa, angajatorului.

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DISCUŢII CU PRIVIRE LA NATURA JURIDICĂ SI FORMELE PROCEDURALE DE ÎNTOCMIRE A ACTELOR DE STARE CIVILĂ

Cristina-Mihaela LUPU
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga”, Sibiu

Keywords: civil registration records, civil registry officer, public administration authority, technical-material operation, legal nature, birth, death or marriage as legal acts, administrative documents, process of drawing up of the civil registry records

Discussions concerning the legal nature as well as the registration procedures of civil records
Summary

The organization of civil registration records is in charge of the state. Regardless of their legal nature, civil registration is performed, in keeping with current regulations, only by state-run institutions and only in civil formal and official civil registration records.
Thus, we have selected for the analysis set forth in the present paper the specific procedures of performing these responsibilities as well as their nature.
In keeping with the Methodology no. 1/13.10.1997 for the standard application of the stipulations of Act no. 119/1996 regarding civil registration records, the performance of civil registration responsibilities belongs to the registrars affiliated with the town halls in municipality or its administrative-territorial units, in towns and villages, whereas in county districts and Bucharest, this responsibility belongs to the persons especially appointed from the specialized departments of county councils and, respectively, the Bucharest Town Hall, as well as the Heads of the Diplomatic and Consular Missions of Romania, ship and airship commanders outside the national territory and the army registrars, appointed by a Decision of the Ministry of Defense, abiding by the stipulations of the law.
The debate on the legal nature of the civil registry document has stemmed from the fact that the civil registry document is drawn up by a civil officer, a representative of local administration authority, and these public administration authorities are entitled to issue, in their current activity, administrative documents endowed with public authority.

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ASPECTE TEORETICE SI DE PRACTICĂ JUDICIARĂ PRIVIND RĂSPUNDEREA CIVILĂ A PĂRINŢILOR
PENTRU FAPTELE ILICITE SI PREJUDICIABILE ALE COPIILOR CARE LOCUIESC CU EI, ÎN DREPTUL ROMÂNESC SI ÎN DREPTUL FRANCEZ

Lector univ. Alin-Gheorghe GAVRILESCU
Facultatea de Stiinţe Juridice
Universitatea „Constantin Brâncusi” din Tg.-Jiu

Mots-clés: responsabilité civile, fait illicite, mineur, obligations des parents, conditions spéciales, aspects théoriques, pratique judiciaire

Aspects théoriques et de pratique judiciaire concernant la responsabilité civile des parents pour les faits illicites et préjudiciables des enfants qui habitent avec eux, dans le droit roumain et dans le droit français
Résumé

La responsabilité des parents pour le fait illicite et préjudiciable de l’enfant qui habite avec eux s’inscrit dans la conception classique de la responsabilité pour le fait d’autrui. Cette responsabilité trouve son fondement dans l’inaccomplissement des obligations qui reviennent aux parents concernant la personne de leur enfant mineur. La responsabilité des parents est subordonnée à deux séries de conditions, pouvant l’engarom si, avec les conditions générales de la responsabilité civile délictuelle – l’existence du préjudice, du fait illicite du mineur et du rapport de causalité entre le fait et le préjudice il y a deux conditions spéciales qui sont accomplies: la condition de la minorité de l’enfant qui est l’auteur du fait provoquant des préjudices et la condition de sa communauté d’habitation avec ses parents. La responsabilité intervient à l’intérêt de la victime pour assurer son dédommagement pour le dommage qui lui a été produit.

1. Noţiuni introductive
1.1. Reglementare legală

Răspunderea părinţilor pentru prejudiciile cauzate de copiii lor minori este o răspundere civilă delictuală, indirectă, respectiv pentru fapta altei persoane, fiind reglementată de dispoziţiile art. 1000 alin. 2 C. civ. care stabilesc că „tatăl si ...

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CONSIDERAŢII PRIVIND POSIBILITATEA SOŢILOR DE A FOLOSI BUNURILE COMUNE CA APORT
LA SOCIETĂŢILE COMERCIALE

drd. Ioan PUIE

Keywords: legality, equality, solidarity, contribution, property companies

Considerations regarding the possibility of spouses to use their property as a contribution to the common joint property companies
Summary

The present study is devoted to analysis conditions in which the spouses may enter together or each one, they can bring their contribution to the formation or increasing the capital of companies, common property in joint property, by legal acts of administration or provision. The study presents practical utility, because the doctrine and jurisprudence in this domain, starting from a false premise, that the legal rules of commercial law are special rules in relation to the family law, have priority in applying. Also, without making convincing legal arguments, it is argued that the contribution made by one spouse does not meet the requirement to be fully individualized. Therefor, according to this thesis, a spouse can make joint property as common property contribution only if the other spouse has obtained the express agreement or if the other spouse has obtained the division of common goods so bringing contribution with their own goods.
Using legal logic arguments and some text arguments we demonstrated that the legal norms belonging to the two branches of law have a special character in relation to civil law. Consequently, in case of specific legal relationships, according to their specificity, may be incidents only the rules of commercial law or only the rules of family law, or both.
However, in both situations, to cover some lacking situations, the common law rules will be appealed, those under the civil code.
To this situation, I concluded that according to regulations of family code and Law 31/1990, regarding the companies, any spouse, alone or together with other can bring common property in joint property. In fact, according to article 35, paragraph 2, from family code, the express agreement of both spouses is necessary only in case in which the contribution is made through legal acts of alienation which have as object land or buildings, common property in joint property. We state that in future regulatory, article 347 of the new civil code, called contribution of common property confirms the thesis supported by us throughout this study.

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2. DREPT JUDICIAR PRIVAT

COMPETENŢA SI LEGITIMAREA PROCESUALĂ ACTIVĂ ÎN LITIGIILE PRIVIND NERESPECTAREA NORMELOR CONCURENŢIALE

Prof. univ. Dr.h.c. Ioan LES
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga”, Sibiu
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bărnuţiu”

Keywords: competition law, Competition Council, National Council for Solving Contestations, State allowances, public acquisitions, competence, procedural quality, action for damages

Competence and active procedural legitimacy within litigations on violation of competition norms
Summary

In the herein study the author analyses in detail certain procedural institutions less studied in the field of the competition law. The first part of the article deals with litigations on the violation of competition norms. The author presents the competences of investigation and implementation of contravention sanctions by the Competition Council and the National Council for Solving Contestations, referring also to the legal nature of these bodies of control. In addition to this, he rests upon the modalities of investiture of these bodies of control.
A particular research is done in what concerns the competence of the courts of justice, the author showing the existence of a diversity of solutions with respect to the procedural means of exercising the judicial control and the procedures of attack that can be brought against the solutions of the courts of first instance.
The author thoroughly investigates, invoking also solutions from the comparative law, the active procedural quality on the matter subject to analysis. He pleads for an increase of the role of the Public Ministry and of the People’s Advocate within the litigations on the free competition and the protection of customers’ rights. Moreover, the author supports the thesis according to which, in what concerns the litigations on damages, the procedural legitimacy must also be recognized in favour of any natural or legal person that can justify a personal interest, including the associations of customers.

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SOLUŢIILE PRONUNŢATE DE INSTANŢA DE RECURS ÎN PROCESUL CIVIL ÎN CAZUL ACTELOR DE DESISTARE ALE PĂRŢILOR

Lector univ. dr. Sebastian SPINEI
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga”, Sibiu
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bărnuţiu”

Keywords: Romanian civil procedure, „disponibility”, withdrawal of the claim, settlement of the dispute, desistance acts, recourse

Solutions issued by the court of recourse regarding the parties’ withdrawal of a civil action
Summary

The principle of „disponibility”, among others, governs the Romanian civil procedure. It signifies that parties have the power to conduct proceedings – to initiate the trial, to determine its scope, to withdraw the claim or settle the dispute.
The withdrawal of the claim and the settlement of the dispute, also known as desistance acts, present some particularities in the phase of the recourse. These particularities are analyzed in the following study.

I. Renunţarea la judecată
Potrivit art. 246 C. proc. civ. reclamantul poate să pună capăt procesului renunţând la judecată oricând în cursul judecăţii, deci inclusiv în recurs1. Cum un asemenea act de dispoziţie nu va putea fi primit însă de instanţă după dezbaterea fondului decât cu învoirea celeilalte părţi, rezultă că acordul pârâtului este necesar pentru ca renunţarea să poată produce efecte în recurs2. Dacă reclamantul a câstigat în faţa instanţei (sau instanţelor) de fond, recurent poate fi doar pârâtul. În recursul acestuia, desi puţin probabilă în practică3, este teoretic posibilă o renunţare la judecată (la acţiune) din partea reclamantului intimat, renunţare faţă de care pârâtul nu ar avea, în principiu, interes să se opună.

1 C.S.J., s. cont. adm., dec. nr. 169/2000, apud I. Les, Codul de procedură civilă. Comentariu pe articole, Editura C.H. Beck, Bucuresti, 2007, p. 631.
2 În acelasi sens, C.Ap. Bucuresti, s. a IV-a civ., dec. nr. 1867/1998, ibid.
3 Cu excepţia litigiilor de familie, unde interesele judiciare sunt mai frecvent de natură personală decât de natură patrimonială.

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CONCEPTUL CONTEMPORAN AL JUSTIŢIEI APLICABIL SISTEMULUI JUDICIAR INTERN

Lector univ. dr. Adrian STOICA
Facultatea de Drept si Stiinţe Administrative „Ovidius”, Constanţa

Mots-clés: ordre juridique, système judiciaire interne, concept, autorités, globalisation et européanisation

Le concept contemporain de la justice applicable au système judiciaire interne
Résumé

La vie sociale et l’ordre juridique comporte un intêret individuel et social. Dans le contenu de celle-ci comunication, on a fait au debut une courte présentation concernant l’évolution dans l’ordre juridique de la notion de justice et on a formulé la conclusion que, dans le contexte actuel, ou la globalisation et l’européanisation jouent un rôle essentiel dans cette ordre, les droits et les libertés fondamentales de l’individu représentent la mission la plus importante d’une société moderne.
Dans la deuxième partie, on a fait une courte présentation concernant toutes les autorités impliquées dans le service publique de la justice et aussi de ses partenaires pour évidentier l’independence et l’impartialité actuelle du système judiciaire roumain.
Voir aussi toutes les réformes imposées dans ce moment, on pose la question, elles peuvent conduire à une indépendence réelle du système juridique interne?

1. Evoluţia conceptului de justiţie
Viaţa socială si ordinea juridică a unui Stat fac din acesta o personificare a colectivităţii, o lume a acţiunilor. Statul, în concepţie juridică, reprezintă realitatea indubitabilă, naturală si istorică a poporului care-l compune, dominat de puterile stabilite în acel teritoriu determinat.
Cum ar trăi si evolua populaţia unei ţări fără o structură statală si fără justiţie? Bineînţeles, că ar exista o anarhie vesnică în care tipuri de justiţie privată si-ar face apariţia, iar din punct de vedere individual, cel mai puternic va supravieţui.
De aceea, de-a lungul vremii omul a ajuns la convinromea profundă că există un interes individual si un altul social, că nu poate trăi fără acestea si nici acestea ...

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SCURTE CONSIDERAŢII PRIVIND COMPETENŢA DE JURISDICŢIE ÎN UNIUNEA EUROPEANĂ ÎN MATERIE MATRIMONIALĂ SI ÎN MATERIA RĂSPUNDERII PĂRINTESTI STABILITĂ PRIN REGULAMANTUL (CE) NR. 2201/2003

Dr. Paraschiva BELULESCU
Judecător Curtea de Apel Craiova

Keywords: jurisdiction, Member State, usual residence, scope

Short considerations on competence of jurisdiction within the European Union on the matrimonial matter and on that of the parental liability stipulated by Regulation (EC) No. 2201/2003 Summary Regulation (EC) no. 2201/2001 sets out rules on jurisdiction with the courts of the European Union Member States in matrimonial matters and the matters of parental responsibility. In matrimonial matters, the set rules of jurisdictions have an alternate character, two basic criteria being used in governing such, i.e. the criterion of habitual residence and the criterion of citizenship. In matters of parental responsibility, the rule incorporates jurisdiction with the courts of the Member State in whose territory the child is habitually resident at the time the court is seized. Some exceptions are provided to this rule, though failing to disregard child’s best interests.

Adoptarea Regulamentului (CE) nr. 2201 din 27 noiembrie 20031 privind competenţa, recunoasterea si executarea hotărârilor judecătoresti în materie matrimonială si în materia răspunderii părintesti, de abrogare a Regulamentului (CE) nr. 1347/20002, s-a înscris pe linia perfecţionării reglementărilor existente la nivelul Uniunii Europene în domeniul cooperării judiciare în materie civilă.

1 Publicat în JOUE nr. L 367/14.12.2004.
2 Regulamentul nr. 1347/2000, publicat în JOUE nr. L 160/2000, stabilea normele privind competenţa, recunoasterea si executarea hotărârilor judecătoresti în materie matrimonială si în materia răspunderii părintesti faţă de copiii comuni, pronunţate cu ocazia acţiunilor matrimoniale.

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CONSIDERAŢII PRIVIND UNELE DISPOZIŢII ÎN MATERIA EXECUTĂRII SILITE CUPRINSE ÎN PROIECTUL NOULUI COD DE PROCEDURĂ CIVILĂ

Bogdan DUMITRACHE
Formator la Institutul Naţional al Magistraturii
Executor judecătoresc – Camera Executorilor Judecătoresti
de pe lângă Curtea de Apel Bucuresti

Keywords: Civil procedural code, Project, forced execution, writ of execution, objection to an executor, executor’s conclusions, the debtor’s goods, access of executor, approval of execution, distraint upon mobile goods, forced taken over of the immovable goods.

Considerations on certain provisions in the field of forced execution embodied in the Project of the New Civil procedural code
Summary

The alteration brought to the Civil procedural code on the matter of the forced execution, by means of the project published on the site of the Ministry of Justice represent a bone of contention; the public was invited to elaborate proposals of improvement of the project before April 25th 2008.
The herein paper analyses the Project of the New Civil procedural code, having as a starting point important solutions that break new ground in comparison to the current regulation embodied in the Civil procedural code in the field of forced execution. The author does not aim at unconditionally praising the authors of the Project, finding room, when necessary, for criticism often synonymous with the reproach to “half measures” or to disaccord between the proposed texts or between them and other texts of the Code or even with reality.
New solutions are seen both within the “general part”, namely within those provisions with respect to the forced execution as a whole, independent of the form of forced execution, and within the special part, that is the one regarding a certain form of forced execution.

1. Precizări prealabile Articolul de faţă nu are pretenţia de a acoperi toate modificările aduse Codului de procedură civilă, în materia executării silite, prin proiectul publicat pe site-ul ...

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3. Drept public

REPERE FUNDAMENTALE ALE POLITICII REGIONALE A UNIUNII EUROPENE

Conf. univ. dr. Daiana Maura VESMAS
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga”, Sibiu
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bărnuţiu”

Keywords: regional policy, structural fonds, region, regionalization, territorial development, territorial coesion

Fundamental marks of the regional policy of the european union
Summary

The role of the regions has increased in the process of the development of Europe.The under-national level has strenghtened and gradually a Europe of the regions has been born based on a dynamic regional European policy. The regional policy of the European Union represents an intervention meant to diminuish the discrepancies between the economical and social development levels of the different regions in Europe. Its main role is that of mobilization of the unused ressources from different regions, the attraction of funding from other regions and, at the end, the increasing of production and incomes.
A fundamental notion of te regional policy is te territorial development, representing the statal intervention in the spontanous processes of te regional development, which has to be understood as a totality of measures, means and institutions with the role of reforming the territorial and administrative structure of each European country.

Introducere
Comunităţile Europene au reprezentat pe plan european si internaţional o construcţie inedită si originală diferită de orice organizaţie internaţională, caracterizându- se printr-o structură instituţională si juridică sui-generis. Uniunea Europeană nu este un stat federal si nici o simplă formă de cooperare între guverne.
Statele membre rămân state suverane, independente, dar în acelasi timp ele renunţă la o parte din această suveranitate pentru a câstiga o putere si o influenţă mondială pe care în mod independent nu ar putea să le aibă.

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ÎNŢELESUL NOŢIUNII DE „BUN” ÎN JURISPRUDENŢA CEDO

Conf. univ. dr. Carmen POPA
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga”, Sibiu
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bărnuţiu”

The meaning of the notion of „goods” within the ECHR Jurisprudence
Summary

We are witnessing today, more than ever, a reassessment of the role and importance of the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights in the national law systems. Likewise, the interest of the law practitioners to apply the Convention within the internal law has risen significantly. Therefore a major desideratum has been reached, that of finding suitable, compatible solutions between the norms of the Convention and the Romanian law system, like the one of protecting the right to property in a community system.

Sistemul european de protecţie a drepturilor omului este alcătuit, după cum bine se cunoaste, din Convenţia pentru apărarea drepturilor omului si a libertăţilor fundamentale (Convenţia) si Protocoalele care o însoţesc. Dintre acestea, prin Protocolul adiţional – denumit în mod curent Protocolul nr. 1 si prin Protocoalele nr. 4, 6, 7 si 12, au fost reglementate noi drepturi si libertăţi alături de cele iniţial cuprinse în Convenţie.
În ce priveste protecţia dreptului de proprietate în sistemul european, Convenţia europeană a drepturilor si libertăţilor fundamentale nu a prevăzut iniţial protecţia dreptului de proprietate, din cauza rezervelor unor state ca Elveţia, Spania, Liechtenstein. Abia la 29 martie 1952 a fost semnat la Paris Protocolul adiţional nr. 1, care a intrat în vigoare în anul 1954, si care, în primul său articol, reglementează protecţia dreptului de proprietate în sistemul internaţional, regional si european de protecţie a drepturilor omului1.

1 C. Bîrsan, Protecţia dreptului de proprietate în sistemul european de protecţie a drepturilor omului, cu privire specială asupra restituirii unor bunuri, în PR nr. 2/2003, p. 12; C. Bîrsan, Limitările dreptului de proprietate reglementate de CEDO, în PR nr. 3/2003, p. 165-196; C. L. Popescu, Hotărârile CEDO pronunţate în cauzele împotriva României (1998-2002), Editura All Beck, Bucuresti, 2003, p. 6, 82, 95, 145, 171. Din 35 de cauze prezentate de autor în 26 dintre ele s-a constatat violarea art. 1 din Protocolul nr. 1, statul român fiind obligat la despăgubiri în favoarea reclamanţilor. A se vedea si V. Berrom, Jurisprudenţa CEDO, Institutul Român pentru Drepturile Omului, Bucuresti, 1998, p. 376, 1296, 1348, 1354, 1391; M. Voicu, Protecţia Europeană a Drepturilor Omului. Teorie si jurisprudenţă, Editura Lumina Lex, Bucuresti, 2001, p. 286-437; CEDO, Cameră, Hotărârea din 8 noiembrie 2005, Saliba c/ Malta, Hotărârea din 15 noiembrie 2005, J.A. Pye (Oxford) Ltd. c/ Regatul Unit, citate în CJ nr. 1/2006, p. 44-46.

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SANCŢIUNEA CONTRAVENŢIONALĂ – SINGURA SANCŢIUNE ADMINISTRATIVĂ?

Conf. univ. dr. Elena Mihaela FODOR
Universitatea Crestină „Dimitrie Cantemir” Bucuresti
Facultatea de Drept Cluj-Napoca

Keywords: contravention, sanctioning system, contraventional sanction, regime of contraventions

The contraventional sanction – the only administrative sanction?
Summary

A brief look into the sanctioning system shows that administrative sanctions take their place besides the civil and criminal sanctions. If the criminal sanctions are mainly of a punitive nature and civil ones have a preponderant reparatory nature, administrative sanctions should include both preventive and reparatory measures besides the punitive sanctions. In the Romanian law, a particular administrative sanction is the contraventional sanction. The contravention is an infringement of the law committed in such circumstances that the social danrom is lower than in case of a criminal deed. The article points out that lately there is an unhealthy tendency of transforming the contraventional sanction into the only administrative sanction. To prove this, Law No. 504/2002 of the audiovisual is examined.
Although all the infringements of this law’s provisions are proclaimed of being contraventions, it is clear that the general regime of contraventions established by Government Ordinance No. 2/2001 does not apply neither to the emission of the sanctioning administrative act nor to the procedure of contesting the sanction, leading to some confusion in applying this law. It is also pointed out that due to the fact that some infringements of the fiscal regulations are also defined as contraventions, often for the same infringement of a fiscal obligation, two administrative sanctioning acts are emitted to the same person: one applying the contraventional sanction (a fee) and another containing the obligation to pay the fiscal obligation to which a surcharge is added. If the infringement is to be contested, both acts have to be contested, but in front of different courts due to their different nature. This often leads to different judgements over the existence of the same infringement. The article concludes that a broadening of the administrative sanctions is necessary at the same time with narrowing the aria of infringements defined as contraventions.

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CONSIDERAŢII ASUPRA SPECIFICULUI PREJUDICIULUI ÎN CADRUL ACŢIUNII DIRECTE ÎN CONTENCIOS SUBIECTIV AVÂND CA OBIECT UN ACT ADMINISTRATIV NORMATIV

Asist. univ. drd. Ana MOCANU SUCIU
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bărnuţiu” Sibiu,
Judecător – Tribunalul Sibiu

Mots-clés: contrôle d’administration publique, contentieux administratif indirect, acte réglementaire, droits fondamentaux, moyens de défendre de droits subjectifs, dommage

Considérations sur le spécifique du préjudice dans l’action directe en contencieux administratif ayant comme objet un acte administratif normatif
Résumé

L’Etat de droit est une notion essentielle de l’organisation étatique; il est une notion politique et juridique qui a pris ampleur de l’analyse par des générations de juristes, il s’est vu propulsé sur la place publique. A la fin du XXe siècle, il se trouve au coeur des débats philosophiques et politiques concernant le statut et le rôle de l’Etat.
L’un des traits caractéristiques du développement de l’Etat moderne est l’importance toujours croissante des activités de l’administration publique. Depuis le début de ce siècle, outre sa mission traditionnelle d’assurer le respect de la loi et de l’ordre public, la puissance publique s’est de plus en plus engagée dans une multiplicité d’actions tendant à assurer le bien-être des citoyens et à améliorer les conditions sociales et matérielles de la société. Cette évolution a eu pour conséquence que l’individu est de plus en plus fréquemment impliqué dans des procédures administratives. Des efforts ont été entrepris, dans les divers Etats, pour améliorer la position de l’individu vis-à-vis de l’administration sur le plan de la procédure, tendant à l’adoption de règles assurant le respect de l’équité dans les rapports entre le citoyen et les autorités administratives.
La démocratie représentative, par la division stricte du travail qu’elle implique, ne permet pas aux citoyens d’exercer un contrôle direct sur l’administration. La professionnalisation et la mise au point de l’appareil bureaucratique comportent par conséquent le risque de créer un mécanisme hors contrôle démocratique qui aurait tendance à s’autonomiser.

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AUTONOMIA LOCALĂ – PRINCIPIU FUNDAMENTAL DE ORGANIZARE SI FUNCŢIONARE A ADMINISTRAŢIEI PUBLICE LOCALE

Asist. univ. Laurenţiu SONERIU
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bărnuţiu”
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga” din Sibiu

Keywords: local autonomy, local, autonomous administrative authorities, administrative guardianship, subsidiarity

Local autonomy – fundamental principle of organization and functioning of local public administration
Summary

Local autonomy or local self-government is a fundamental principle behind the organization and functioning of local public administration focuses on a constitutional article 120 which stipulates that „public administration in territorial-administrative units is based on principles of local autonomy, decentralization and deconcentration of public services”.
Recalling the provisions of Article 3 of the European Charter of Local Self-Government, adopted in Strasbourg on October 15, 1985, Law no. 215/2001 stipulates in Article 3: „The local autonomy is understood the right and effective capacity of local authorities to resolve and manage, on behalf of local interest and that is public affairs”.
In Article 4 of the law is established specifying the content of local autonomy that is only administrative and financial organization, functioning skills, competence and management resources that belong to the territorial administrative units.
Therefore, local autonomy should not be confused with absolute independence, with a total isolation of local authorities towards the central state administration. She can take the meaning of independence granted to a political collectivity.
Local authorities are embedded material (the territory) legal and sovereign state, which ensures the autonomy needed to manage their specific affairs, but only insofar as they are integrated into state law.

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PROSTITUŢIA ÎN SOCIETATEA ROMÂNEASCĂ: ÎNTRE INCRIMINARE, TOLERANŢĂ SI LEGALIZARE

Lector univ. dr. Cosmin DARIESCU
Universitatea „Al. I. Cuza”, Iasi
Facultatea de Drept

Keywords: phenomenon of prostitution, historic, regulation, tendencies of institutionalization

Prostitution within Romanian society: between incrimination, toleration and legalization
Summary

The herein study aims at underlining the ambivalent attitude, often contradictory, manifested within the Romanian society towards prostitution. In the following lines we will show that, despite the incrimination of this phenomenon, during the Middle Age, the Church and laic authorities tried to combat prostitution only when it seriously perturbed the social order (especially affecting the public health or the quiet and order from a suburb) or the natural course of a marriage (case in which the guilty woman was punished). In the same period, even God used in the State’s interest this social phenomenon. Within Modern Age, the Romanian State legalized prostitution, being concerned in maintaining public health, and after the Second World War it incriminated it again, under the influence of the communist morals.
The Romanian society’s attitude towards the phenomenon of prostitution was inconsequent, changing, similar to the mioritic space theoretized by Lucian Blaga. Incriminated during Middle Age, legal in the second half of the 19th century and first half of the 20th century, the prostitution is of interest even today, at the beginning of the 21st century, as a social and legal problem that waits solutions.

Prostituţia are si în spaţiul românesc o vechime considerabilă. Cele dintâi atestări documentare ale existenţei acestui fenomen social se găsesc în primele pravile redactate în limba română, în secolul al XVII-lea. Având în vedere viteza mult redusă cu care circulau informaţiile în acel secol, lentoarea considerabilă a reacţiei agenţilor ordinii sociale din epocă (Biserica Ortodoxă si Domnul) precum si termenul relativ îndelungat de evaluare a consecinţelor unui fenomen social, putem ...

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BIODETECŢIA JUDICIARĂ A COMPORTAMENTULUI SIMULAT. POLIGRAFUL (II)

Ioana POIANĂ
masterand
avocat, Baroul Sibiu

Keywords: polygraph, judicial biodetection, positive and negative terms of use of the polygraph, procedure of use, preparation, usage of the polygraph, interpretation of the diagrams

The judicial biodetection of simulated behavior. The polygraph (II)
Summary

The aim of this article is to describe the proper use of the polygraph and the stages that a specialist has to pass in order to guarantee that the principle of finding the truth is followed.
The first part of the paper deals with the terms of use of the polygraph. These terms can be positive or imperative and negative or prohibitive.
The positive terms take into consideration the expert, the room, the subject, and two principles. The expert has to be well informed about all the aspects of the case. The room has to be ideal for the examination. The subject has to be medically able to take the test and to give his written consent to be submitted to the polygraph. The last term guarantees the respect of the principle of presumption of innocence till proven guilty and the right to a defence.
The negative terms prohibit the expert to use topics that have a discriminating character while testing. They also do not allow submitting the subject to long investigations before the lie testing is done. The second part of the paper analyses the process of testing the subject’s emotional status using the polygraph. This procedure is done in three stages that have to be followed, namely: the preparation of the testing, the testing itself and the interpretation of the diagrams. The stages of the polygraph test have a lot of common characteristics with the technique of listening to the crime suspect. All these stages have great importance and are interdependent.

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III. DREPTUL NOILOR TEHNOLOGII UN EXEMPLE DE RÉGULATION NON-CONCURRENTIELLE:
LA GESTION DES FRÉQUENCES FACE AUX IMPERATIFS DE SANTÉ

Bernard THÉRY
Responsable des Affaires juridiques
Agence nationale des fréquences, France

Keywords: electromagnetic fields, mobile telephony, recommendation, directive concerning antennas and equipments

An example of non-competition regulation: the management of frequencies face to face with the imperatives of health
Summary

Electromagnetic fields are part of our daily life, whether at home, in the street or at work. The rapid deployment of the mobile telephony and the omnipresence of mast antennas raised, sometimes relieved by the media, concerns among a few people. Do the electromagnetic fields they generate have effects on health?
In front of the uncertainty in the answers of the scientists, the European Union adopted a recommendation and a directive establishing values below which public exposure to electromagnetic fields do not present any risk, concerning both antennas and equipments.
Despite the transposition of the European texts in French law, some mayors decided to apply the principle of precaution and to forbid the implantation of antennas in some places.
However, it seems that transparency in information given and self regulation from the operators would avoid conflicts and would reassure the public.

INTRODUCTION
Les champs électromagnétiques font partie de notre environnement quotidien, que ce soit à la maison, dans la rue ou au travail. Ils proviennent d’origines naturelles, comme le champ magnétique terrestre, ou artificielles, comme ceux générés par les appareils électroménaroms, les téléviseurs, les lignes électriques ...

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