REZUMAT NR. 2 AN 2010

I. STUDII

1. Drept privat

ELEMENTE DE DREPT COMPARAT PRIVIND ÎNCHEIEREA CĂSĂTORIEI ÎN ROMÂNIA Şl GRECIA *)

Alexandru BACACI, Universitatea „Lucian Biaga" din Sibiu
Anastasia GRAMMA TIKAKI-ALEXIOU, Universitatea Aristotel din Salonic
Cristina-Mihaela LUPU, Universitatea „Lucian Blaga"din Sibiu

Keywords: valid marriage, substantive requirements, solemn civil ceremony, legal provisions, legal age, consent, degree of relationship, impediments

Comparative law elements regarding marriage in Romariia and Greece
Summary

The rules of family law which form the legal background for a valid marriage, differ significantly, and are partly deeply rooted in society and culture. In the herein paper we shall dwell upon the rules concerning the conditions for marriage of the two legal systems (Greek and Romanian). In what follows, we analyze the differences between the two laws comparing different legislative soiutions.

Cadrul legal
Constituţia României **), în art. 48, statuează că „familia se întemeiază pe căsătoria liber consimţită dintre soţi, pe egalitatea acestora, pe dreptul şi îndatorirea părinţilor de a asigura creşterea, educaţia şi instruirea copiilor. Condiţiile de încheiere, de desfacere şi de nulitate a căsătoriei se stabilesc prin lege. Căsătoria religioasă poate fi celebrată numai după căsătoria civilă".
În art. 21 alin. 1, Constituţia Greciei prevede că „Familia, considerată alături de căsătorie, maternitate şi copilărie piatră de temelie, instituţie fundamentală...

* ) Cercetări realizate în cadrul proiectului POSDRU 7706 Creşterea. rolului studiilor doctorale şi a competitivităţii doctoranzilor într-o Europă unită, cofinanţat din Fondul Social European prin Programul Operaţional Sectorial Dezvoltarea Resurselor Umane 2007-2013.
**) Constituţia României, modificată şi completată prin Legea de revizuire a Constituţiei României nr. 429/2003, republicată în M. Of. nr. 767 din 31 octombrie 2003.

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EL MANDATO Y RESPONSABILIDAD DEL GERENTE GENERAL EN LAS SDCIEDADES ANONIMAS

Mana Fernanda JUPPET EWING
Decano Universidad UNIACC, Chile
Magister en Derecho de la Empresa, Universidad del Desarrollo
Magister en Administracion de empresas. Universidad de Valencia

Keywords: general manarom, corporation, mandate, liability, legai responsibility, board of directors, Chilean legal system, commercial law, limited company

The mandate and liability of the general manarom of a corporation
Summary

The obligations that a general manarom is assuming when beginning his mandate in a corporation and his liability for breaching or overstepping his competencies are the main focus of this article.
The authors make a very precise presentation of this issue within the Chiiean legal system, drawing the attention upon the problems refer ring to the key position of a general manarom inside a corporation and on the relevant legal provisions to be applied such as norms of labor law and commercial law.
Furthermore, the article tackles the issues of electing the general manarom, the conditionality imposed by the legal provisions concerning the various types of relations that the general manarom has with the company on the one hand and with the board of directors on the other hand. AII together the article wishes to propose systematization, although the authors are cailing it a rather rudimentary attempt, of the Chilean legal norms regulating the legal responsibility of the general manarom of a corporation.

El presente articulo tiene por finalidad, realizar una aproximacion a las obligaciones asumidas por el Gerente General de una Sociedad Anonima, desde el momento de ia constitucion de su mandato hasta su termino. Y, en especial, a los actos que pudieran hacerlo incurrir en responsabilidad por incumplimiento de las obligaciones que su mandato y las leyes le imponen.
Es importante recalcar, que al estudiar la tematica referente a la responsabilidad de los Directores en el ejercicio de su cargo orientador en el que hacer de las Sociedades Anonimas, tanto abiertas como cerradas, existen multiples fuentes a ser consultadas, pero no se da la misma situacion en ei caso...

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LE CHIEN EN DROIT MUSULMAN

Sami A. ALDEEB ABU-SAHLIEH*)  

Keywords: Musiim law, animal, legal status. legal texts

The dog within the Musiim law
Summary

The Mustim law embodies many generai provisions regarding the animais, as weli as a series of special norms referring to the dog's status. The Quran and other special laws state clearly the interdiction of abusing this animal. The law regulates the conditions in which the dog can be sold, bought, used for different activities (haunting, guard etc.). During time, the Musiim law h as known seve ral superstitions that encouraged the creation of a positive or negative image, depending on the case, of this animal that has an extremely interesting legal status.

Le droit musulman prevoit de nombreuses prescriptions generales concernant Ies animaux, et des normes speciales concernant certains d'eux dont le chien. Parmi Ies normes generales, on signalera le devoir de traiter avec bienveillance Ies animaux, que Dieu a cree pour l'utilite de l'homme.
Le Coran, premiere source du droit musulman, mentionne te chien dans trois passages
Les recueils des recits de Mahomet, la deuxieme source du droit musulman, comportent plusieurs passages ayant des implications juridiques. Ces passages sont souvent cites dans les fatwas modernes pour determiner l'attitude qu'il faut avoir â l'egard du chien
Comme on vient de le voir, le chien est tolere lorsqu'il est utile. Mais meme s'il est utile, il ne reste pas moins un animal impur. Â ce titre, il rend impur ce qu'il touche et ce qu'il leche, et la place ou il s'est couche doit etre purifiee â l'eau comme le fit une fois le Prophete. II en est de meme de son sang ou de son

* ) Docteur en droit. Habilite â dirirom des recherches (HDR). Professeur des universites (CNU-France). Responsable du droit arabe et musulman â l'lnstitut suisse de droit compare (1980-2009). Professeur invite â differentes universites en France, en Italie et en Suisse. Directeur du Centre de droit arabe et musulman. Auteur de nombreux ouvrages et articles (liste de ses publications dans: www.sami-aldeeb.com). Les citations de la Bible sont reprises de la Bible de Jerusalem, Cerf, Paris, 1984; les citations du Coran sont reprises de notre propre traduction: Le Coran: texte arabe et traduction rangaise par ordre chronologique selon l'Azhar, avec renvoi aux variantes, aux abrogations et aux ecrits juifs et chretiens, Editions de l'Aire, Vevey, 2008.

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CÂTEVA NOŢIUNI DE BIOETICĂ ÎN DREPTUL ROMÂN *)

Prof. univ. dr. Călina JUGASTRU
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga". Sibiu
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bărnuţiu"

Keywords: genetic patrimony. assisted human reproduction, procurement, transpiantation, clinical experiment, prenatal diagnostic, sterilization, clonation

Few Notions of Bioethics within the Romanian Law
Summary

The medical research performed on human subjects involves a series of problems, amongst which only few are currently regulated within ihe Romanian law, The assisted human reproduction, the procurement and transpiantation of organs, cells and tissues, the clinical experiments, the prenatal diagnostic, the sterilization, the clonation - are only a few of the aspects that make our de bate, given the situation that, de lege lata, the legal frame is insufficient.
Being iong ago regulated by other European States, these problems proved to be in practice as controversial as they are exciting. The interference of the medical fieid with the legal sciences, the ethical and moral aspects, have complicated and deiayed a necessary Romanian regulation that was surpassed by an immediate reality.
The entire problem of the researches performed on the human genome needs adequate reguiations. The preoccupations of genetic engineering must not be encouraged for other than the amelioration of health, discovering remedies for the diseases that now are regarded as incurable. And these preoccupations require a strict legal frame and clear conditions, having as an angular stone the consent. The premise is that every individual is unique. With the exception of the homozygote twins, there are no two identical beings that wouid posses the same genetic patrimony. The bioethics humanizes science and law, without deforming them. The coid truth of science and the progress it generates are counterbaianced in the reguiations with ethic and of protection of individual rights substratum. This is the only possible sen se of evolutions that grants the avoidance of genetic deviations, with monstrous consequences even in theory

* ) „Această lucrare a fost finanţată din contractul POSDRU/89/1.5/S/61968, proiect strategic ID 61968 (2009), cofinanţat din Fondul Social European, prin Programul Operaţional Sectorial Dezvoltarea Resurselor Umane 2007 - 2013".

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COPROPRIETATEA FORTATĂ ASUPRA PÂRTILOR SPAŢIU ALTA DESTINAŢIE ÎN ACTUALA REGLEMENTARE ŞI ÎN NOUL COD CIVIL*)

Lector univ. dr. Cornelia MUNTEANU
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga Sibiu
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bărnuţiu"

MoTs-cle: propriete individueiie, propriete indivise, parties communes, association de proprietaires, droits et obligations des proprietaires, organisation et gestion

La copropriete des immeubles batis dans la reglementation actuelle et dans le nouveau Code civil
Resume

L'essor de la copropriete des immeubles batis resulte de la conjonction de facteurs divers: industrialisation et urbanisation, les techniques modernes de construction, expansion demographique et accroissement du prix des terrains, la crise du logement... Une telle copropriete se singuiarise par une combinaison originale de proprietes individuelles et d'un indivision forcee. Chaque proprietaire est titulair d'un droit de propriete exclusive sur son appartement et copropietaire indivis des partis communes de l'immeuble (sol, escaliers, toiture, murs porteurs etc.).
Etre coproprietaire dans un immeuble par appartements n'a seullement cette significat ion, mais aussi d'etre membre d'une personne morale et, en particulier, de son assemblee, debiteur des charges occasionees par la conservation de l'immeuble et par l'administration des parties communes.
Cest pourquoi dans cette etude nous avons essayer d'analiser ces problemes.

* ) Cercetarea de faţă a fost realizată prin contractul POSDRU/89/1.5/S/61968, proiect strategic ID 61968, cofinanţat din Fondul Social European prin Programul operaţional Sectorial pentru Dezvoltarea'Resurselor Umane 2007-2013.

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CONTRACTUL INDIVIDUAL DE MUNCĂ PE DURATĂ
DETERMINATĂ ÎN DREPTUL COMPARAT

Lector univ. dr. Monica GHEORGHE
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga”, Sibiu
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bărnuţiu”

Keywords: employment contract, fixed-term employment contract, flexibility, labor relationship

The fixed-term employment contract within the comparative law
Summary

In the framework of the recent discussions regarding the alteration of the Labor Code – Law No.53/2003, with further alterations and completions, it is intended to alter the legal regime peculiar to the fixedterm employment contract. These modifications are primarily caused by
the necessity, brought to light by the practice, to make labor relationships more flexible, especially to the employers’ interest. With the aim of meeting the needs shown within practice, the alterations and completions of the Labor code in this field regard: the extension of the situations in which the conclusion of fixed-term employment contracts is allowed, the increase of the term for which such contracts may be concluded, as well as the elimination of certain duties that the employers have in relation to the employees that have concluded such contracts.
The herein study aims at presenting a synthesis of the regulation of fixed-term employment contracts within the legislation of certain countries appreciated as meaningful and that meet in an increased manner the need of flexibility of labor relationships.

În cadrul discuţiilor recente privind modificarea Codului muncii – Legea nr. 53/2003, cu modificările si completările ulterioare, se urmăreste modificarea regimului juridic aplicabil contractului individual de muncă pe durată determinată.
Aceste modificări sunt determinate, în principal, de necesitatea izvorâtă în practică de a flexibiliza desfăsurarea relaţiilor de muncă, în special în interesul angajatorilor. Cu scopul de a răspunde exigenţelor din practică, modificările si completările Codului muncii în această materie vizează: extinderea situaţiilor în care încheierea contractelor individuale de muncă pe durată determinată, majorarea duratei maxime pentru care se poate încheia un contract pe durată determinată, precum si renunţarea la unele obligaţii pe care angajatorii le au faţă de salariaţii încadraţi în baza acestui tip de contract individual de muncă.

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PRINCIPIUL TERITORIALITĂŢII PRIN PRISMA REGULAMENTULUI ROMA II *)

Lect. univ. dr. Adrian CIRCA
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga” din Sibiu
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bărnuţiu”

Keywords: intellectual property, copyright, laws conflict, lex loci protectionis,
Roma II Regulation

Principle of territoriality in the angle of the Roma II Regulation
Summary

The Construction of the European legal area has diversified since the entry into force of the Rome II Regulation. First-born among European Union Private International Law, the Rome II Regulation establishes rules concerning the law applicable to non-contractual obligations.
Thus, some of its notions and terms are also in use in other European Union Regulations concerning Private International Law such as the Brussels I and the Rome I Regulation. Rome I and Rome II deal with the same legal issue – i.e. choice of Law – but one focuses on the contractual side while the other considers the non-contractual side of obligations.
Lex loci protection is a dogma that regards solving a conflict of laws in matters of intellectual property.
The innovative solutions proposed by the regulation are not in the field of the protection of intellectual property, which followed the traditional line drawn through international conventions.
The thing that mainly affects the conflict of laws in the field of copyright is the ambiguous character of conventional regulations which contain resolution rules for such a conflict.
Therefore, a study of these regulations seems necessary in order to determine the rules of Community of choice of law which intend to replace common law rules of conflict.

* ) Această lucrare a fost finanţată din contractul POSDRU/89/1.5/S/61968, proiect strategic ID 61968 (2009), co-finanţat din Fondul Social European, prin Programul Operaţional Sectorial Dezvoltarea Resurselor Umane 2007-2013.
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RELAŢIA ÎNTRE CONFLICTUL DE INTERESE, CORUPŢIE SI FRAUDĂ
I. ACCEPŢIUNI ALE CONFLICTULUI DE INTERESE ÎN LEGISLAŢIE, DOCTRINA JURIDICĂ SI JURISPRUDENŢĂ
*)

Asist. univ. dr. Andreea Corina TÂRSIA
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga”, Sibiu
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bărnuţiu”

Keywords: conflict of interest, corruption, fraud, crime, public servant, magistrate

The relationship between the conflict of interests, corruption and fraud
I. Meaning of the conflict of interests within the legislation, literature on the matter and jurisprudence
Summary

There are times when private, individual or group interests tend to take priority over the general public interest or the legitimate interest of a person, causing a subjective, biased or unfair behavior from the person invested with certain official or professional duties. As human nature is always fallible, this trend is often materialized in decisions or measures that are meant to ensure the promotion of private interests in achieving the specific purpose of obtaining financial benefits, material benefits or benefits of some other nature. Such a situation gives the outline of the concepts of „conflict of interests”, „corruption” and „fraud” whose presence in almost all areas requires not only the control intervention
and sanctions, but also the improvement of the legislation in order to streamline the identification operations and to prevent their commission.
This rationale requires prior clarification of the three concepts whose multiple understandings may cause difficulties in identification and assessment strategy for corruption and fraud risks caused by conflicts of interest.

* ) Această lucrare a fost finanţată din contractul POSDRU/89/1.5/S/61968, proiect
strategic ID 61968 (2009), cofinanţat din Fondul Social European, prin Programul
Operaţional Sectorial Dezvoltarea Resurselor Umane 2007-2013.

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RELAŢIILE PERSONALE DINTRE PĂRINŢI SI COPII – ELEMENT FUNDAMENTAL AL VIEŢII DE FAMILIE

Lector univ. dr. Alin-Gheorghe GAVRILESCU
Universitatea „Constantin Brâncusi” din Tg.-Jiu
Facultatea de Stiinţe Juridice si Litere

Keywords: personal relationship, child, parents, separation, right

The personal relationship between parents and children –
fundamental element of the family life
Summary

Insofar as the under age child lacks physical and mental maturity it is necessary that his individual and his/her legacy be protected by a mature and capable individual to make mature and reasonable decisions with the aim of a harmonious development of his personality and ensuring his material welfare. As a consequence, the adults in whose care the child is as a legal provision, have the task to ensure his protection and full accomplishing of his personal and material interests which the law bestow on him. With the view to accomplish this task, the adult person has certain duties and rights which together constitute the contents of parental care.
Naturally speaking the function of protection of the underage child has to be performed by the proximity of the blood relationship and real affectivity relationship that exists among the parents and child. Within the Romanian Law this rule flows from Article 5, second paragraph of the Law 272/ 2004 concerning the protection and promotion of the rights of the child that establishes that the responsibility for the child bringing up and ensuring his developing is held first and foremost by the parents. The same are provided by the dispositions of the article 6 of the same law.
In certain situations the child may be separated by one or both of his parents. As a principle the separation of the child from his parents does not have as a consequence the pay off of all the duties or losing the parental rights. Thus the parent is entitled by the law to have personal relationships with the child, to oversee his bringing up, education and the professional training (Article 43 paragraph 3 Fam. C). On the other hand, under the direct incidence of the Convention regarding the respect to the child’s rights whose dispositions were taken on in the internal law, the Romanian law gives by means of Article 16 of Law 272/2004 the child the right to maintain personal relationships and direcs connections with both parents in the case he was separated by one or both of the parents by a provision of the law, except those situations when they are contrary to the child’s interest.

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PROFESIA DE NOTAR SI FUNCŢIA PUBLICĂ ÎN DREPTUL ROMÂN CONTEMPORAN

drd. Oana Roxana BEURAN
Notar public
Camera Notarilor Publici, Bucuresti

Keywords: notary profession, notary activity, public function

The notary profession and the public function within the romanian contemporary law
Summary

The notary profession had a special evolution, which starts from consigning the quality of the owner and reaching its complex role within nowadays society.
Although there is no exact definition concerning the Notary Public profession, the public character of this profession is to be settled, on the one side by the legal provisions in force, and on the other side, by the services rendered by notary.
However, there is a definition issued by Professor Constantin Tufan, and namely „A liberal profession represents the profession attained by a legal person, following an academic education within the educational system, expressed by an appropriated specialization and which follows to be exercised, freely and independently, through any form of organization, wished by each”.
The evolution of profession knew an enormous progress after December 1989, respectively in 1995, when it became a free profession, at the moment the notary developing its service of public interest.

Preliminarii

Profesia de notar, cu rădăcinile sale istorice, este una din cele mai vechi profesii. Ea este, paradoxal putem spune, atât de modernă, pe cât de veche.
De la importanţa sa de consemnator al calităţii persoanei de proprietar până la rolul său atât de complex din societatea actuală atât de marcată de fenomenul globalizării, pe de o parte, cât si de cel al integrării europene, pe de altă parte, în contextul naţional atât de diferit, de specific al fiecărei ţări, acesta este drumul parcurs de evoluţia acestei profesii.

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CONSIDERAŢII PRIVIND DOLUL, VICIU AL VOINŢEI JURIDICE

dr. Ioan MUNTEAN
Avocat, Baroul Sibiu

Mots-clé: volonté juridique, consentement, vice, erreur, dol, définition, règlementation, classification, structure, conditions, preuve, sanction

Considérations concernant le dol, vice de la volonté juridique
Résumé

Le dol représente ce type de vice de consentement qui consiste dans la tromperie d’une personne, par des méthodes trompeuses ou dolosives, afin de la déterminer de conclure un certain acte juridique. Le dol est une erreur provoquée, non plus spontanée comme c’est l’erreur proprement-dite, étant la réalisation de l’autre partie faite par des méthodes malhonnêtes.
À la différence de l’erreur proprement-dite qui constitue un vice de consentement seulement alors quand celui-ci affecte la substance ou la personne, l’erreur povoquée par le dol suppose, en général, l’annulation de l’acte juridique, n’importe pas quel en est son objet, si celle-ci a été déterminante au moment du consentement.
La structure du dol est composée par deux éléments, qui doivent être réunis d’une manière cumulative: a) un élément objectif, matériel, qui consiste dans l’utilisation des méthodes malhonnêtes par l’intermède desquelles la personne est trompée; b) un élément subjectif, intentionnel, qui consiste dans l’intention de tromper une personne, pour la déterminer à conclure un acte juridique civil.
Pour pouvoir annuler l’acte, le dol doit accomplir, d’une manière cumulative, les conditions suivantes: a) être déterminant pour la conclusion de l’acte juridique civil, c’est-à-dire la partie ne l’aurait pas contracté autrement; b) provenir de l’autre partie ou plus exactement provenir de l’une des parties contractantes.
La sanctionne qui intervient dans le cas du dol principal est la nullité relative de l’acte juridique, l’action en annulation pouvant être promue seulement par la victime des manipulations dolosives. S’agissant d’une nullité relative, la victime du dol peut confirmer l’acte frappé par une telle nullité, soit exprès, soit tacit. Parce que le dol a une nature juridique double dans le sens qu’il constitue tant un vice de consentement, tant un fait illicit de l’auteur des manipulations dolosives, cela peut constituer un motif tant pour l’annulation de l’acte juridique, tant pour une action de compensation.

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2. Drept judiciar privat

DISPONIBILITATEA PROCESUALĂ ÎN VIZIUNEA NOULUI COD DE PROCEDURĂ CIVILĂ

Prof. univ. dr. Ioan LES
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga”, Sibiu
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bărnuţiu”

Keywords: new Civil Procedure Code, procedural availability, attributes of procedural availability, plaintiff’s withdrawal from the trial

The procedural availability within the new Civil procedure code
Summary

The scientific approach that represents the object of the herein study is intended to a brief analysis of the main attributes of the principle of procedural availability, traditionally seen as the core „element” of the civil procedure. The New Civil Procedure Code states in Article 9 only the main attributes of the procedural availability, without defining this concept, as it did with other different situations.
The author provides us a general picture on the main innovations brought to the new procedural legislation regarding the withdrawal from the trial, acquiescence and judicial transaction.
In the herein study, the author draws also a comparative analysis of the institutions regulated in the New Civil Procedure Code in relation to the current procedural legislation.

1. Preliminarii.

NCPC determină, într-un Titlu preliminar, Principiile fundamentale ale procesului civil. Disponibilitatea este un principiu tradiţional al procesului civil si al disciplinei care o studiază. Ea este de esenţa procedurii civile, iar opusul ei este oficialitatea, iar aceasta din urmă ţine de natura procedurii penale. NCPC trasează, în art. 9, domeniul de acţiune al principiului disponibilităţii, fără a-l denumi ca atare. Într-adevăr, textul enunţă atributele esenţiale ale disponibilităţii procesuale, împrejurare ce se desprinde si din prevederile ultimului alineat al textului menţionat, care statuează că „partea poate dispune de drepturile sale în orice alt mod permis de lege”.
Prin disponibilitate se înţelege posibilitatea conferită de lege părţilor de a sesiza autorităţile judiciare, de a dispune de obiectul litigiului si de mijloacele de ...

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CARACTERISTICI ESENŢIALE ALE APELULUI SI RECURSULUI ÎN PROCEDURA CIVILĂ.
ORIGINI SI TRANSFORMĂRI *)

Lector univ. dr. Sebastian SPINEI
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga”, Sibiu
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bărnuţiu”

Mots-clé: procédure civile roumaine, voies de recours, appel, recours, caractéristiques, principes

Caractéristiques essentielles de l’appel et du recours en
procédure civile. Les sources et les transformations
Résumé

La fonction essentielle des juridictions est celle de solutionner les litiges entre les parties.
A côté du principe conformément auquel ce qui a fait l’objet d’un jugement ne peut plus être mis en discussion, on a admis que l’erreur de jugement est possible, vu que l’activité de solution des litiges est, comme toute autre action humaine, imparfaite, et la nécessité de remédier à ces erreurs a imposé la création d’instruments juridiques mis à la disposition des parties à cette fin.
C’est pourquoi tous les systèmes judiciaires prévoient des voies d’attaque diverses, spécialisées comme fonctions et vouées à corrirom les erreurs judiciaires de divers types.
Parmi ces voies d’attaque, l’appel et le recours sont les plus usuels et, pour cela, les plus ‘influents’. Elles exercent des fonctions d’importance spéciale et d’intérêt général: assurer le respect de la loi, l’unité d’interprétation et d’application de la loi, exercer une forme d’autorité sur les juridictions ‘subordonnées’.
Leurs principes fondateurs, celles qui pourraient conférer leur identité réelle, peuvent produir les modèles théorique de référence pour des solutions légales et jurisprudentielles justes et propres.

* ) „Această lucrare a fost finanţată din contractul POSDRU/89/1.5/S/61968, proiect strategic ID 61968 (2009), cofinanţat din Fondul Social European, prin Programul Operaţional Sectorial Dezvoltarea Resurselor Umane 2007 – 2013”.

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INCIDENTE PROCESUALE CARE AFECTEAZĂ CERCETAREA ÎN FOND A ACŢIUNII CIVILE (II) *)

drd. Alexandru SUCIU
avocat, Baroul Sibiu

Mots-clé: exception de illégalité, exception de non constitutionalité, exceptions de procédure, exceptions de fond, défenses de fond, délimitations, exceptions de droit matériel, le nouveau Code de Procédure Civile, modalité d’invoquer, modalité de solution

Incidents procéduraux qui empêchent l’examen en fond de l’action civile (II)
Résumé

A part les exceptions de procédure et les exceptions de fond, il y a d’autres institutions de droit processuel dont l’effet est l’empêchement de l’examen en fond d’une action civile, ayant pour conséquence la déviation du cours du litige de son chemin naturel. Ces incidents procéduraux n’ont pas la nature juridique des «exceptions processuelles» proprement dites mais, des certains points de vue, elles leur ressemblent. La ressemblance peut résulter soit des effets qu’ils ont sur le litige civil, soit d’une confusion sémantique, beaucoup d’eux étant appelés «exceptions» (l’exception d’illégalité d’un acte, l’exception de nullité, l’exception de non constitutionnalité etc.)
Autres systèmes de droit1 ont donné une réglementation distincte à ces incidents. Ainsi, la procédure civile française prévoit l’institution de la «fin de non recevoir» en tant qu’obstacles qui empêchent l’examen en fond du procès civil. Dans le système de droit roumain tant les fins de non recevoir que les inadmissibilités ont justement une consécration doctrinaire, leur introduction dans la législation civile n’étant pas considérée opportune par la majorité des spécialités du droit processuel civil.
L’arrêt de l’examen en fond du litige peur être temporaire ou définitif, dépendant de l’incident invoqué devant l’instance. Les incidents peuvent concerner l’acte d’introduire une instance (les inadmissibilités ou les fins de non recevoir), un acte juridique utilisé dans le procès civil (l’exception d’illégalité ou l’exception de nullité) ou même un texte légal concernant le litige (l’exception de non constitutionnalité).
On va analyser à tour ces incidents procéduraux par rapport à l’institution générale des exceptions processuelles.

* ) Cercetare realizată în cadrul proiectului POSDRU 7706 „Cresterea rolului studiilor
doctorale si a competitivităţii doctoranzilor într-o Europă unită”, cofinanţat din Fondul Social
European prin Programul Operaţional Sectorial Dezvoltarea Resurselor Umane 2007-2013.

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3. Drept public si stiinţe administrative

ISTORIA REGLEMENTĂRILOR ÎN MATERIA ORDINII SI LINISTII PUBLICE

Conf. univ. dr. Nicolaie Gheorghe SUTEU
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga”, Sibiu
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bărnuţiu”

Motto: „Fiecare persoană are dreptul să beneficieze, pe plan social si internaţional, de existenţa unei ordini care să permită ca drepturile si libertăţile enumerate în prezenta declaraţie să-si poată găsi o realizare deplină”.

Declaraţia Universală a Drepturilor Omului, art. 28

Keywords: public order, national siytem, history of regulations

The history of regulations in the field of public order and quietness
Summary

The functioning of the state governed by the rule of law cannot be conceived unless an adequate legislative frame, an impeccable organization of the public order forces that can ensure, maintain and restore public order.
The resolution of the Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly No.690/1997 established the right of each state to create public order forces that can preserve the state of equilibrium and harmony.
In Romania, public order is ensured by the components of the national system of public order.
The national system of public order comprises the legislation, the authorities and bodies of the public central and local administration, the institutions as well as other forces that act to grant the fundamental rights and freedoms of the citizens, the protection of the property and the normal functioning of the state.

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APLICAREA LEGII PENALE MAI FAVORABILE ÎN CAZUL PEDEPSELOR DEFINITIVE (I)

Lector univ. dr. Anda SANTAI
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga”, Sibiu
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bărnuţiu”

Keywords: final sentence, compulsory enforcement of the more favourable law, optional enforcement of the more favourable law

The enforcement of the more favourable criminal law in the case of
final sentences (I)
Summary

The principal of individualisation of penalty must govern both the activity of determining the sanctions and the activity of enforcing the law by the courts of justice, as well as the entire activity linked to the execution of sentences. In relation to these three stages, we can talk about the three types of individualisation of penalty: legal, judiciary and postcondamnatorie. The latter type enters into scene after a final conviction. Despite the fact that, traditionally it is known as administrative individualisation1 in order to outline the fact that it happens at the place of detention and on the grounds of the decisions made by the commissions on the execution of sentences, we believe that the notion of postcondamnatorie individualisation is more appropriate, because, firstly, there are several situations in which a new individualisation after a final sentence may occur, besides the administrative individualisation of the manner of execution of the imprisonment penalty, and even within the procedure of administrative individualisation of the execution of penalties, the decisions of the commission of the individualisation of the execution regime of imprisonment sentences are subject to the control of the delegated judge and the decision of the latter may be censored by the court of instance.
Given the alteration brought during time to the criminal legislation, a problem of permanent interest linked to the postcondamnatorie individualisation of penalties is represented by the enforcement of the more favourable criminal law when a new law was issued, after a final conviction, if it states a penalty which is less severe for the crime for which the sentence was ruled.

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DISCUŢII CU PRIVIRE LA CONDIŢIILE DE ADMISIBILITATE A COMUNICĂRILOR ADRESATE COMITETULUI PENTRU DREPTURILE ECONOMICE, SOCIALE SI CULTURALE *)

Lect. dr. Laura-Maria CRĂCIUNEAN
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga” din Sibiu
Facultatea de Drept

Keywords: admissibility conditions, economic, social and cultural rights, UN International Covenant of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, UN Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, individual communications

Discussions on the Admissibility Conditions for Communications Filed to the International Committee for Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
Abstract

The adoption and the opening for signature, on the 10th of December 2008, by the United Nation, of the Optional Protocol to the Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights constitutes, in our opinion, a strong step ahead in the field of economic, social and cultural rights protection. It continues the road paved in the last decade by the UNESCO Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity (2001) and UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expression (2005). We will point out the main provisions of this Protocol and we will conclude in the sense that this instrument, the others before it and the General Comments of the Committee for Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (namely General Comment no. 20 and General Comment no. 21 of 2009), are meant to sustain this desired evolution in the field of cultural rights.

* ) „Această lucrare a fost finanţată din contractul POSDRU/89/1.5/S/61968, proiect strategic ID 61968 (2009), cofinanţat din Fondul Social European, prin Programul Operaţional Sectorial Dezvoltarea Resurselor Umane 2007-2013”.

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RUPEREA EGALITĂŢII ÎN FAŢA SARCINILOR PUBLICE
– FUNDAMENT AL RESPONSABILITĂŢII PUTERII PUBLICE *) –

Asist. univ. drd. Ana MOCANU-SUCIU
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga”, Sibiu
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bărnuţiu”

Mots-clé: responsabilité juridique, responsabilité patrimoniale, puissance publique, égalité, charge publique

La rupture d’egalité devant les charges publiques – fondement de la responsabilité de la puissance publique
Résumé

Le principe d'égalité est un principe fondamental des systèmes politico-juridique dans les Etats démocratiques. Un de ces aspects essentiels est l’égalité des citoyens égaux devant les autorités publiques.
À cet égard, le rôle de l'Etat, exercée par les autorités publiques est d'assurer un règlement equilibré en rencontre le mission de service public afin que les toute personne ne soit pas tenue de payer des droits plus élevés que le reste des citoyens.
Même dans les situations dans lesquelles l’intérêt publique peut être justifié par une limitation d’exercice du droits des citoyens, cette limitations doit être instituée d’une manière unitaire et équilibrée, sans créer des catégories de personnes ou même d’ individus qui peuvent être obligés de supporter, dans une marge plus grande que autres les charges publiques pour travaux, service et prestations institués dans le bénéfice d’entière population ou communauté.
Quand la rupture d’egalité devant les charges publiques a eu lieu, l’institution de la responsabilité publique assure l’equilibre au milieu des citoyens.

Potrivit lui Platon, justiţia filozofului se termină acolo unde se intră în viaţa publică si a încărcăturii sale de guvernare a unui oras **). Responsabilitatea puterii publice este o teorie care a prins contur în secolul al XI-lea, chiar dacă Declaraţia Drepturilor Omului din timpul Revoluţiei Franceze de la 1789 a instituit rommenii săi.

* )Cercetări realizate în cadrul Proiectului POSDRU/6/1.5/S/26 cofinanţat din Fondul Social European prin Programul Operaţional Sectorial Dezvoltarea Resurselor Umane 2007-2013.
**)A. Neschke-Hentschke, J. Follon, Platonisme politique et théorie du droit naturel: contribution à une archéologie de la culture politique européenne, tome I, le platonisme politique dans l’antiquité, Bibliotheque Philosophique de Louvain, 1995, p. 5.

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PREZUMŢIA DE NEVINOVĂŢIE ÎN MATERIE CONTRAVENŢIONALĂ

Asist. univ. Laurenţiu SONERIU
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga”, Sibiu
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bărnuţiu”

Keywords: contraventions, presumption of innocence, legality, doctrine, jurisprudence

The presumption of innocence in contravention matters
Summary

Regarding the burden proof in contravention matters, The European Court of Human Rights has established that the Romanian courts are obliged to apply the Article 6 of the European Convention of Human Rights which is part of domestic law as result of its ratification by Law no.30/1994. In the case Anghel vs. Romania, the Court held that national courts have to ensure compliance with the innocence presumption, provided in Article 6, paagraph.2. In this regard, the national courts should not solve the case with the preconceived idea that petitioner committed the crime (contravention) that he is accused of.
Then, the burden proof belongs to the accused and any doubt should benefit to him. (in dubio pro reo).
Trough decision in the case Anghel vs. Romania, the Court, does not intend to revolutionize the contravention procedure but to highlight the importance of respecting the guarantees provided by Article 6 in this procedure, by completing the legal provisions with the principles stated over the time by the European Court.
The conclusion is that Romanian courts have to exercise a more active role regarding the management of evidence and to ensure a balance between the legal safeguards provided by Article 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights in favor of petitioner (especially the presumption of innocence) and the presumption of legality and rationality of record of findings and sanctioning contraventions.
To eliminate any controversy about the legal issues presented, The High Court of Cassation and Justice should intervene and ensure uniform judicial practice in contraventions matters.

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IMPACTUL UTILIZĂRII MIJLOACELOR ELECTRONICE ÎN DOMENIUL BIROTICII SI STRESUL VIZUAL
– ÎNTRE REGLEMENTARE SI TEHNICĂ –

Prep. univ. Andreea DRAGOMIR
Universitatea „Lucian Blaga”, Sibiu
Facultatea de Drept „Simion Bărnuţiu”

Keywords: bureaucratic work, electronic means, legal regulations

The impact of using electronic means in the field of stationary and the visual stress
– between regulation and technique –
Summary

The article aims at emphasizing the importance of the legal regulations in the field of stationery (the science of automation of bureaucratic work) aiming on the upraising of the performance of administrative and bureaucratic work, the ergonomic organization of the office work (a superior level of the scientific organization) and adds to this objective the increasing of the comfort, safety and satisfaction of the worker. This aim leads us first of all to productivity but we must underline that it has to focus mainly on the HUMAN BEEING, its needs, health and safety.
The European legal regulations have evolved based on the identification of the factors which contribute to the discomfort and health alteration of the office workers but still they were advanced by the realities of the permanent and strong impact of the utilization of the electronic means in the public or private bureaucratic milieu. The Romanian legislation in this field, in spite of the efforts of harmonization with the European law made in the last years, continue to show us a rather poor and primitive profile unable to fully protect the office workers.

Unul dintre cele mai importante resorturi ale evoluţiei în societatea noastră îl constituie pătrunderea informaticii si electronicii în cele mai variate domenii ale vieţii stiinţifice, economice, sociale, precum si în spaţiul administraţiei publice.
Prin apariţia si răspândirea sistemelor multimedia, care îmbină în mod optim telecomunicaţiile, tehnica de calcul si audiovizualul, prelucrarea informaţiei capătă noi dimensiuni, atât calitative, cât si cantitative, si contribuie esenţial la cresterea calitativă si cantitativă a performanţei la locul de muncă.

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